Agent Name

Formaldehyde

CAS Number

50-00-0

Formula

C-H2-O

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Gas: Methanal; Methyl aldehyde; Methylene oxide; Aqueos: Formalin; [NIOSH]

Category

Aldehydes

Description

Nearly colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor; Formalin is an aqueous solution that is 37% formaldehyde by weight; inhibited solutions contain 6-12 % methyl alcohol. [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used in the production of formaldehyde resins, plywood, particle board, paper, and urea-formaldehyde foam; embalmers and laboratory workers may be exposed to levels above 1 ppm; [LaDou, p. 458] The major industrial consumers of formaldehyde resins are molded plastic parts, decorative laminates, photographic film, and plywood paneling. High formaldehyde exposures were documented in carpet installers and parquet tile fitters. Formaldehyde also exists as a polymer (paraformaldehyde) and as a trimer (sym-trioxane or trioxmethylene). [ACGIH] Occupational asthma reported in hospital workers; [Malo] Also at risk for asthma and allergic contact dermatitis are housekeeping personnel, machinists, and textile workers.

Comments

Liquid causes first degree burns on short exposure; [CHRIS] Inhalation of formaldehyde can produce bronchospasm and pulmonary edema. [ATSDR Medical Management] Sold commercially as formalin in 37%, 44%, or 50% solutions of formaldehyde; Skin sensitization reported from coolants, photographic chemicals, paper, carpets, and fabric resins. [Marks, p. 88] [Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde. Burge PS et al. Thorax 1985 Apr;40(4):255-60.] There is sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer and leukemia in humans. [IARC Monograph Volume 100F (2012): Formaldehyde]

Restricted

See 29CFR1910.1048 (Code of Federal Regulations)

Reference Link

OSHA Technical Links: Formaldehyde

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

No

Ceiling (ACGIH)

0.3 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.75 mg/m3, STEL(OSHA) = 2 ppm

MAK

0.3 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that exposure to 10 to 20 ppm produces almost immediate eye irritation and a sharp burning sensation of the nose and throat which may be associated with sneezing, difficulty in taking a deep breath, and coughing; recovery is prompt from these transient effects [Kodak 19361960]. It has been estimated that exposure for 5 to 10 minutes to 50 to 100 ppm might cause serious injury to the lower respiratory passages [Kodak 1936-1960]. The following exposure-effect data has also been reported: Most subjects experience irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat at 1 to 3 ppm; many subjects cannot tolerate prolonged exposures to 4 to 5 ppm; and difficulty in breathing was experienced at 10 to 20 ppm [IARC 1982]. In a summary of health effects data, upper airway irritation and increased nasal airway resistance were reported at 0.1 to 25 ppm and lower airway and chronic pulmonary obstruction at 5 to 30 ppm [NRC 1981].

Odor Threshold Low

0.02 ppm

Odor Threshold High

1.9 ppm

RD50

3 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (mice) = 454 mg/m3/4H

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHEMINFO; In HSDB: odor threshold = 0.5-1 ppm; another reference in HSDB gives odor threshold of 1.47 mg/m3 (1.2 ppm) to 73.5 mg/m3 (60 ppm);

Half Life

Urine (for formic acid): 80-90 minutes; [TDR, p. 713]

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Formaldehyde

Flammability (NFPA)

4: Burns readily

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Asthma

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Suspected Human

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: