Agent Name

1,4-Dioxane

Alternative Name

Diethylene dioxide

CAS Number

123-91-1

Formula

C4-H8-O2

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

1,4-Diethylene dioxide; 1,4-Dioxacyclohexane; 1,4-Dioxanne [French]; Di(ethylene oxide); Diethylene dioxide; Diethylene ether; Dioksan [Polish]; Diossano-1,4 [Italian]; Dioxaan-1,4 [Dutch]; Dioxan; Dioxan-1,4 [German]; Dioxane; Dioxane, technical grade; Dioxane-1,4; Dioxanne [French]; Dioxyethylene ether; Glycol ethylene ether; Glycolethylenether; NE 220; Tetrahydro-1,4-dioxin; Tetrahydro-p-dioxin; Tetrahydro-para-dioxin; p-Dioxan [Czech]; p-Dioxin, tetrahydro-; para-Dioxane; [ChemIDplus] UN1165

Category

Ethers (<C12)

Description

Colorless liquid or solid (below 53 degrees F) with a mild, ether-like odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for cellulose esters, ethers, and other organic chemicals; [ACGIH] Used as a solvent in resins, polymers, oils, waxes, dyes, wood pulping, adhesives, varnishes lacquers, paints, and cosmetics; [HSDB]

Comments

Five workers in an artificial silk factory died as a result of severe kidney and liver damage after heavy exposures for 2 months; [ACGIH] [Allergic contact dermatitis from dioxane in a solvent for cleaning metal parts. Fregert S. Contact Dermatitis Newsletter. 1974. 15(438)] A skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant; Inhalation of high concentrations may cause CNS effects; [ICSC]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

20 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

100 ppm

MAK

20 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

500 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Guinea pigs can tolerate 2,000 ppm by inhalation for several hours without serious symptoms; higher concentrations produced eye, nose, and lung irritation [Yant et al. 1930].

Vapor Pressure

38.1 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.8 ppm

Odor Threshold High

172 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 46,000 mg/m3/2 hr

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 12 ppm); Flash point = 18 deg C;

Reference Link

ICSC: 1,4-Dioxane

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Nephrotoxin

Yes

Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: