Agent Name

Antimony

CAS Number

7440-36-0

Formula

Sb

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

Antimony metal; Antimony powder; Stibium; [NIOSH] Antimony and compounds, as Sb; [ACGIH] UN2871

Category

Metalloids and Compounds

Description

Silver-white, lustrous, hard, brittle solid; scale-like crystals; or a dark-gray, lustrous powder; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Antimony exposure can occur in smelting and refining operations and in alloy production. Antimony is used in glass, paints, ceramics, pigments, lead solders, and lead storage batteries. It is also used as a catalyst in the rubber and electronics industries. [Harber, p. 470] Antimony trioxide is used as a pigment for paints and a fireproofing agent for fabrics, plastics, and paper; [CAMEO] Pentavalent antimony used to treat leishmaniasis; Main use is alloy in lead storage batteries (hardener); [Nordberg, p. 355]

Comments

Pneumoconiosis and pustular dermatitis have been associated with chronic exposure to antimony dust. [LaDou, p. 431-2] Miners and millers of antimony ores may develop silicosis and mixed-dust pneumoconiosis. Workers in smelters exposed to antimony oxide may develop a simple pneumoconiosis. [Rosenstock, p. 409] A study published in 1954 of abrasive workers exposed to Sb2S3 at levels usually exceeding 3 mg/m3 found that 6 of 125 workers died of sudden cardiac deaths, and EKG changes, mostly of T waves, were found in 37 of 75 workers examined. [ACGIH] Antimony trioxide caused allergic contact dermatitis in two ceramics workers. [Kanerva, p. 1129] Antimony is a "hepatotoxic agent." [Zimmerman, p. 4] There is evidence from pharmacologic use that antimony is nephrotoxic. [Rosenstock, p. 572] "Substances that have been shown to induce genetic damage in germ cells of humans or animals, or which produce mutagenic effects in somatic cells and have been shown to reach the germ cells in their active forms." [MAK] Urine testing is the most reliable method of assessing the level of antimony in the body. Hair testing is not reliable. [PMID 20042882] See "Stibine." See "Antimony trioxide production."

Reference Link

Contact dermatitis and contact sensitization among enamellers and decorators in the ceramics industry

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Biological monitoring of urine antimony in workers may be useful. In one study, 24 hour urine concentrations were < 1 ug/L in persons not occupationally exposed. [Nordberg, p. 359]

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

Bioaccumulates

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.5 mg/m3, as Sb

PEL (OSHA)

0.5 mg/m3, as Sb

IDLH (NIOSH)

50 mg/m3, as Sb

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

The revised IDLH for antimony compounds is 50 mg Sb/m3 based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Izmerov et al. 1982] and an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1993] which has a revised IDLH of 50 ppm (75 mg/m3).

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 720 mg/m3/2 hr

Explanatory Notes

Melting point = 630 deg C;

Half Life

Whole body: 76 hours; The pentavalent form is removed faster than trivalent form. [TDR, p. 109]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Antimony

Adverse Effects
Nephrotoxin

Yes

Fibrogenic

Yes

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: