Agent Name

Propane

CAS Number

74-98-6

Formula

C3-H8

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

A-108; Dimethylmethane; HC 290; Hydrocarbon Propellant A-108; LPG; Liquefied petroleum gas; Petroleum gas, liquefied; Propane; Propyl hydride; Propyldihydride; R 290; n-Propane; [ChemIDplus] UN1978

Category

Simple Asphyxiants

Description

Colorless, odorless gas. [Note: A foul-smelling odorant is often added when used for fuel purposes. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.]; [NIOSH] Vapor density = 1.56 (heavier than air); [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Used as a fuel, solvent, refrigerant, and propellant; [Hawley]

Comments

Propane is a simple asphyxiant. [LaDou, p. 518] Possible frostbite from contact with liquid; [NIOSH] "Critical Effects" for aliphatic hydrocarbon gases are CNS depression; cardiac sensitization; [ACGIH] Propane is in the list of "Some volatile substances which may be abused by inhalation" published on the web site of the U.N. International Drug Control Programme, indicating its potential to cause narcosis in workers. [Reference #1] Evaporating liquid can cause frostbite; Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression and cardiac arrhythmias; [ICSC]

Reference Link

Volatile Substance Abuse

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

No

PEL (OSHA)

1000 ppm

MAK

1000 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2100 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

It has been reported that brief inhalation exposures to 10,000 ppm propane cause no symptoms in humans [Braker and Mossman 1980]. Propane is considered to be a simple asphyxiant [ACGIH 1991].

Odor Threshold Low

12225 ppm

Odor Threshold High

20005 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) > 800,000 ppm/15m

Explanatory Notes

IDLH = 10% LEL; Odor threshold from AIHA; For TLV, See Appendix F: Minimal Oxygen Content; [ACGIH]; Flash point = -156 deg F;

Flammability (NFPA)

4: Burns readily

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Other Poison

Simple Asphyxiant

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: