Agent Name

Coumarin

CAS Number

91-64-5

Formula

C9-H6-O2

Major Category

Biological Agents

Synonyms

1,2-Benzopyrone; 2-Oxo-1,2-benzopyran; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, delta-lactone; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-delta-lactone; 2H-1-Benzopyran, 2-oxo-; 2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one; 2H-Benzo(b)pyran-2-one; 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic delta-lactone; 5,6-Benzo-alpha-pyrone; Benzo-alpha-pyrone; Cinnamic acid, o-hydroxy-, delta-lactone; Coumarin; Coumarinic anhydride; Coumarinic lactone; Cumarin; Kumarin [Czech]; Rattex; Tonka bean camphor; cis-o-Coumaric acid anhydride; cis-o-Coumarinic acid lactone; o-Coumaric acid lactone; o-Hydroxycinnamic acid lactone; o-Hydroxycinnamic lactone; o-Hydroxyzimtsaure-lacton [German]; [ChemIDplus] UN2811

Category

Plant Toxins

Description

Colorless solid with a vanilla odor; [Hawley] Colorless fine plates; [MSDSonline]

Sources/Uses

Occurs naturally in the tonka beans, Cassia, and lavender oils; [Marks, p. 172] Used in soaps, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, and rubber products; Also used in the fragrance industry and in the electroplating industry to polish chrome-plated steel; Coumarin banned in US since 1954 as a flavor in food, it may contaminate vanilla imported from Mexico and Caribbean countries; [HSDB] The anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin) is synthesized from 4-hydroxycoumarin and benzalacetone with pyridine as a catalyst; Many coumarins are effective laser dyes; [Ullmann]

Comments

Emergency treatment: "Coumarin"; After an ingestion of 4 grams of coumarin, a patient developed muscle paralysis but no cardiovascular effects; Has liver toxicity in rats, but humans are relatively resistant; Not active as an anti-coagulant; [HSDB] A skin irritant; May be a human carcinogen; [ICSC] May cause narcosis and liver damage; [CAMEO] May cause irritation; Harmful if swallowed: causes liver injury and somnolence; [MSDSonline] Coumarin is a fragrance allergen that causes allergic contact dermatitis. [Marks, p. 168, 172]

Exposure Assessment
Vapor Pressure

0.00098 mm Hg

Explanatory Notes

Flash point = 150 deg C; [ICSC] The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Toxic solid, organic, n.o.s."

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: