Turpentine is a mixture of terpenes (58-65%); [ACGIH]
Terpenes occur in most essential oils of plants; They are monocyclic (dipentene), dicyclic (pinene) or acyclic (myrcene). Terpene derivatives (terpinoids) include camphor and menthol. [Hawley] Over 4000 terpenes have been identified. They are natural compounds derived from units of isoprene. Turpentine and the monoterpenes (alpha-Pinene, beta-Pinene, and delta3-Carene) are skin irritants, potential skin sensitizers, and at high concentrations CNS depressants. The recommended TLV for "Turpentine and Selected Monoterpenes" is 20 ppm; they are designated as skin sensitizers and A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen). There is a separate guideline for d-Limonene, which has a Workplace Environmental Exposure Level (WEEL) of 30 ppm. [ACGIH] Occupational asthma confirmed in hospital lab technician to a bicyclic terpene from latex gloves, probably 3-Carene; [Malo] See "3-Carene." See "Turpentine."
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