Agent Name

Arsenic and inorganic compounds

CAS Number

7440-38-2; varies

Formula

As, varies

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

Arsenite (trivalent); Arsenate (pentavalent); Organic arsenics include arsanilic acid, methylarsonic acid, dimethylarsenic acid, and arsenobetaine; [Sullivan, p. 858]

Category

Arsenic Compounds, Inorganic

Description

Metal: Silver-gray or tin-white, brittle, odorless solid; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

MINING OR SMELTING: Smelt lead, copper, zinc, cobalt, nickel, or gold; Harden copper and lead; MANUFACTURING: Pesticides (sheep dips, insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, algicides, wood preservatives, cotton desiccants); Lead-arsenic alloys for solder, battery grids, or cable shielding; Electronics (microwave devices, lasers, light-emitting diodes, photoelectric cells, semiconductors); Clarified glass or ceramics; Pigments; USING OR DISPOSING: Clean fossil fuel furnaces, flues, or boilers; Sand or burn arsenic-treated wood; Lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and sodium arsenite have been used as pesticides;

Comments

Except for the electronics industry, the commercial use of arsenic is declining. Skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia are the hallmarks of chronic poisoning. Chronic exposure is associated with lung, liver, and skin cancer. Liver function tests may be abnormal after chronic poisoning. Nasal septum perforation after dust exposure in the workplace was reported in the past. Encephalopathy, after both acute and chronic exposure, has been reported. In chronic toxicity, the kidney is not a major target organ. [ATSDR Case Studies] The evidence that arsenic is a skin and lung occupational carcinogen is strong. The evidence for liver cancer (angiosarcoma) is suggestive. [Siemiatycki, p. 326] "Incrimination of arsenic toxicity in noncirrhotic portal hypertension (i.e., hepatoportal sclerosis) is convincing. The multiple cases that have been reported for patients treated with arsenical preparations and the epidemiologic association of noncirrhotic portal hypertension with intake of arsenic-contaminated drinking water are strongly suggestive." [Zimmerman, p. 420] There is limited positive data for arsenic causing spontaneous abortions in humans and strong positive data for causing testicular damage, birth defects, and fetal loss in animals. [ATSDR Case Studies #29] Arsenic salts are irritants, but can be skin sensitizers. [Kanerva, p. 1129] In order of decreasing toxicity are inorganic trivalent, organic trivalent, inorganic pentavalent, and organic pentavalent compounds. [Sullivan, p. 858] Elemental arsenic is relatively nontoxic; most poisoning is caused by arsenic trioxide. [LaDou, p. 414] Ingestion of 100-300 mg soluble trivalent arsenic such as sodium arsenite can cause fatal hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and shock. [Olson, p. 127-8] Effects of arsenic poisoning after ingestion may include shock and acute renal failure. [Sullivan, p. 861] See the disease, "Arsenic, chronic toxic effect."

Restricted

EPA regulates copper smelters, glass manufacturing emissions, and drinking water. Inorganic arsenic no longer used in agriculture in the U.S. [ATSDR ToxFAQs] Arsenic-treated lumber for residential use voluntarily banned in 2003; [Olson, p. 127]

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Arsenic trioxide

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Inorganic arsenic plus methylated metabolites in urine = 35 ug As/L; end of workweek;

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

Bioaccumulates

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.01 mg/m3, as As (metal, inorganic compds except arsine)

PEL (OSHA)

0.01 mg/m3, as As (inorganic compds except arsine), 0.5 mg/m3, as As(organic compds)

IDLH (NIOSH)

5 mg/m3, as As (metal, inorganic compds except arsine)

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for inorganic arsenic compounds is 5 mg As/m3 based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Flury 1921; Spector 1955]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers.

Explanatory Notes

Melting Point = 1135 degrees F (Sublimes);

Half Life

Whole body (inorganic): 5 days; whole body (organic): 4 days; [TDR, p. 118] Inorganic arsenic half-life = 24-36 hours in humans; [ACGIH]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Arsenic

Adverse Effects
Reproductive Toxin

Yes

Neurotoxin

Sensorimotor Neuropathy

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Anemia

Anemia, Aplastic

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Human

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: