Agent Name

Nitric oxide

CAS Number

10102-43-9

Formula

N-O

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Amidogen, oxo-; Bioxyde d'azote [French]; INOmax; Mononitrogen monoxide; Nitric oxide; Nitrogen monoxide; Nitrogen oxide (NO); Oxyde nitrique [French]; Stickmonoxyd [German]; [ChemIDplus] UN1660

Category

Oxidizers

Description

Colorless gas. (Note: Shipped as a nonliquefied compressed gas.) [NIOSH] NO is converted to NO2 spontaneously in air. [ACGIH]

Sources/Uses

Used in the production of nitric acid; formed in high temperature combustion such as welding and detonation of explosives; it is generated in fires and in the exhaust from internal combustion engines; nitric oxide is present in the toxic gas that causes fatal "silo-fillers' disease" at concentrations reaching 140 ppm; Most exposures to NO include exposure to other nitrogen oxides as well. In oxytorch welding at about 6000 deg C, NO comprises about 95% of the nitrogen oxides. [ACGIH]

Comments

Unlike NO2, NO diffuses into the blood without injuring lung tissue. Methemoglobinemia has been reported in workers exposed to concentrations above 10 ppm. [Rom, p. 1476] Methemoglobinemia has been reported in patients who received nitrous oxide contaminated with 1.5% nitric oxide. Listed in the table "Examples of Industrial Chemicals for Which Methemoglobin Formation is NOT the Principal Cause of Toxicity"; [ACGIH] Nitric oxide can induce methemoglobinemia. NO by itself is nonirritating, but it is usually accompanied by NO2 and other irritating nitrogen oxides. Nitrogen oxides in high concentrations cause delayed pulmonary edema. [ATSDR Medical Management]

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Nitrogen oxides

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Methemoglobin in blood = 1.5% of hemoglobin during or at end of shift. [ACGIH]

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

25 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

25 ppm

MAK

0.5 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

100 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other animal data: Guinea pigs have survived an exposure at 175 ppm for an unstated period [Bodansky 1951]. . . . Human data: It has been stated that exposures to oxides of nitrogen between 100 and 150 ppm are dangerous for exposures of 30 to 60 minutes [Sax 1975].

Odor Threshold Low

0.29 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.97 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 1,068 mg/m3/4H

Explanatory Notes

Odor thresholds from HSDB;

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Secondary

Anemia

Anemia, Hemolytic

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: