Agent Name

Hydrogen sulfide

CAS Number

7783-06-4

Formula

H2-S

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Acide sulfhydrique [French]; Acide sulphhydrique; Dihydrogen monosulfide; Dihydrogen sulfide; Hydrogen sulfide; Hydrogen sulfide (H2S); Hydrogen sulfure [French]; Hydrogen sulfuric acid; Hydrogen sulphide; Hydrogene sulfure [French]; Hydrogene sulphure; Hydrosulfuric acid; Idrogeno solforato [Italian]; Schwefelwasserstoff [German]; Sewer gas; Siarkowodor [Polish]; Stink DAMP; Sulfur hydride; Sulfureted hydrogen; Zwavelwaterstof [Dutch]; [ChemIDplus] UN1053

Category

Chemical Asphyxiants

Description

Colorless gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs; Note: Sense of smell becomes rapidly fatigued & can NOT be relied upon to warn of the continuous presence of H2S; Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

"Hydrogen sulfide is produced naturally by decaying organic matter and is released from sewage sludge, liquid manure, sulfur hot springs, and natural gas. It is a byproduct of many industrial processes including petroleum refining, tanning, mining, wood pulp processing, rayon manufacturing, sugar beet processing, and hot asphalt paving. Hydrogen sulfide is used to produce elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, and heavy water for nuclear reactors." [ATSDR Medical Management]

Comments

"CNS injury is immediate and significant after exposure to hydrogen sulfide. At high concentrations, only a few breaths can lead to immediate loss of consciousness, coma, respiratory paralysis, seizures, and death. . . . Hydrogen sulfide is a mucous membrane and respiratory tract irritant; pulmonary edema, which may be immediate or delayed, can occur after exposure to high concentrations." [ATSDR Medical Management] Like cyanide, causes cellular asphyxiation; Also a mucous membrane irritant; IDLH = 100 ppm; Pulmonary edema at 300-500 ppm; Rapidly fatal at 600-800 ppm; [Olson, p. 240-1] H2S is heavier than air; it displaces air in confined spaces. 80 fatalities were recorded by OSHA from 1984-94. Prevent deaths by using H2S detection equipment, air-supplied respirators, and confined space safety training. [Fuller DC, Suruda AJ. J Occup Environ Med. 2000;42:939-942] Possible frostbite from contact with liquid; [NIOSH] The following chemicals can release H2S when spilled in water: Sulfur chlorides; Phosphorus pentasulfide; and Sodium, Potassium, Calcium & Zinc hydrosulfite. [ERG 2012] See the Process, "Toxic Gas from Spilling Chemical in Water." Hydrogen sulfide is fibrogenic to the lungs in the context of an acute inhalation exposure complicated by bronchiolitis obliterans.

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Hydrogen sulfide

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

STEL (ACGIH)

5 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

3 mg/m3

MAK

5 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

It has been reported that 170 to 300 ppm is the maximum concentration that can be endured for 1 hour without serious consequences [Henderson and Haggard 1943] and that olfactory fatigue occurs at 100 ppm [Poda 1966]. It has also been reported that 50 to 100 ppm causes mild conjunctivitis and respiratory irritation after 1 hour; 500 to 700 ppm may be dangerous in 0.5 to 1 hour; 700 to 1,000 ppm results in rapid unconsciousness, cessation of respiration, and death; and 1,000 to 2,000 ppm results in unconsciousness, cessation of respiration, and death in a few minutes [Yant 1930].

Odor Threshold Low

0.001 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.13 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (mice) = 634 ppm/1H

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.0094); Flash point = 500 deg F;

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Hydrogen Sulfide

Flammability (NFPA)

4: Burns readily

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Fibrogenic

Yes

Other Poison

Chemical Asphyxiant

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: