Agent Name

Malathion

CAS Number

121-75-5

Formula

C10-H19-O6-P-S2

Major Category

Pesticides

Synonyms

((Dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)butanedioic acid diethyl ester; AC 26691; American cyanamid 4,049; Butanedioic acid, ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)-thio)-, diethyl ester, (+-)-; Butanedioic acid, ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)-, diethyl ester; Camathion; Carbethoxy malathion; Carbetovur; Carbetox; Carbofos; Carbophos; Chemathion; Cimexan; Compound 4049; Cythion; Detmol MA; Dicarboethoxyethyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; Diethyl ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)butanedioate; Diethyl (+-)-mercaptosuccinate, S-ester with O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; Diethyl (dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio)succinate; Diethyl mercaptosuccinate S-ester with O,O-dimethylphosphorodithioate; Diethyl mercaptosuccinate, O,O-dimethyl dithiophosphate, S-ester; Diethyl(dimethoxythiophosphorylthio)succinate; Dithiophosphate de O,O-dimethyle et de S-(1,2-dicarboethoxyethyle) [French]; Dorthion; EL 4049; Emmatos Extra; Ethiolacar; Etiol; Extermathion; Flair; Forthion; Fosfothion; Fosfotion; Fosfotion 550; Fyfanon; Hilthion; IFO 13140; Insecticide No. 4049; Karbofos; Kill-A-Mite; Kop-thion; Kypfos; Latka 4049 [Czech]; Malacide; Malafor; Malagran; Malakill; Malamar; Malamar 50; Malaphos; Malasol; Malaspray; Malataf; Malathiazol; Malathion E50; Malathion LV concentrate; Malathon; Malathyl; Malation [Polish]; Malatol; Malatox; Maldison; Malmed; Malphos; Mercaptosuccinic acid diethyl ester; Mercaptothion; Mercaptotion [Spanish]; Moscarda; O,O-Dimethyl S-(1,2-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl) dithiophosphate; O,O-Dimethyl S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl) dithiophosphate; O,O-Dimethyl S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)phosphorodithioate; O,O-Dimethyl S-1,2-di(ethoxycarbamyl)ethyl phosphorodithioate; O,O-Dimethyl-S-1,2-(dicarbaethoxyaethyl)-dithiophosphat [German]; O,O-Dimethyl-S-1,2-dikarbetoxylethylditiofosfat [Czech]; O,O-Dimethyldithiophosphate diethylmercaptosuccinate; O,O-Dwumetylo-S-1,2-bis(karboetoksyetylo)-dwutiofosforan [Polish]; Oleophosphothion; Ortho malathion; Ovide; Paladin; Phosphorodithioic acid, O,O-dimethyl ester, S-ester with diethyl mercaptosuccinate; Phosphothion; Prioderm; S-(1,2-Bis(aethoxy-carbonyl)-aethyl)-O,O-dimethyl-dithiophosphat [German]; S-(1,2-Bis(carbethoxy)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl dithiophosphate; S-(1,2-Bis(ethoxy-carbonyl)-ethyl)-O,O-dimethyl-dithiofosfaat [Dutch]; S-(1,2-Bis(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; S-(1,2-Bis(etossi-carbonil)-etil)-O,O-dimetil-ditiofosfato [Italian]; S-(1,2-Di(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl) dimethyl phosphorothiolothionate; S-(1,2-Dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethyldithiophosphate; S-(1,2-Dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethylphosphorodithioate; S-1,2-Bis(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl-O,O-dimethyl thiophosphate; SF 60; Sadofos; Sadophos; Siptox I; Succinic acid, mercapto-, diethyl ester, S-ester with O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; Sumitox; TAK; TM-4049; Taskil; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Organophosphate Insecticides

Description

Deep-brown to yellow liquid with a garlic-like odor. [insecticide]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used on fruits and vegetables, and to control mosquitoes, flies, and animal parasites; Malthion is often used in mixtures with other pesticides. [EXTOXNET]

Comments

Malathion is one of the less potent organophosphate insecticides. It has an oral LD50 of 500-1000 mg/kg compared to an LD50 of 1-5 mg/kg for parathion. [LaDou, p. 544] Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in farmers. [Kanerva, p. 1188] "Inhalation is not a significant route of exposure to malathion at ordinary temperatures because of its low volatility, but toxic effects can occur after inhalation of malathion sprays or dusts." [ATSDR Medical Management]

Reference Link

EXTOXNET PIP - MALATHION

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Cholinesterase activity in red cells = 70% of individual's baseline, sample time discretionary; [ACGIH]

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction and vapor

PEL (OSHA)

15 mg/m3, total dust

MAK

15 mg/m3

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Workers exposed to initial concentrations up to 85 mg/m3 for 1 hour (that may have declined rapidly) over 42 consecutive days suffered no adverse effects [Golz 1959]. Workers exposed to concentrations that peaked at 56 mg/m3 and averaged 3.3 mg/m3 for 5 hours had normal cholinesterase levels [Culver et al. 1956]. A lethal oral dose of 246 to 471 mg/kg has been reported [Farago 1967; Jusic and Milic 1978]. [Note: An oral dose of 246 to 471 mg/kg is equivalent to a 70­kg worker being exposed to about 11,500 to 22,100 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]

Vapor Pressure

4e-05 mm Hg

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Malathion

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Other Poison

Organophosphate

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: