Agent Name

Chloropicrin

Alternative Name

Trichloronitromethane

CAS Number

76-06-2

Formula

C-Cl3-N-O2

Major Category

Pesticides

Synonyms

Nitrochloroform; Nitrotrichloromethane; Trichloronitromethane; [NIOSH]

Category

Fumigants

Description

Colorless to faint-yellow, oily liquid with an intensely irritating odor. [pesticide] [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a grain, crop, and soil fumigant; also used as an intermediate in organic synthesis and a warning odorant for odorless fumigants and gases; [NIOSH Guidelines for Chemical Hazards]

Comments

Liquid causes second or third degree burns after short contact; [CHRIS] Volunteers cannot tolerate concentrations of 15 ppm for longer than one minute. Chloropicrin can cause lacrimation, vomiting, and then death from pulmonary edema. Animals in chronic inhalation studies suffer from necrosis of liver, kidney, and muscle tissues. [ACGIH] A lachrymator; [HSDB]

Restricted

Restricted use as a pesticide; [NIOSH OSH Guidelines]

Reference Link

EXTOXNET - Chloropicrin

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm

MAK

0.1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other human data: It has been reported that 4 ppm for a few seconds renders a worker unfit for activity and that a 10­minute exposure to 7.5 ppm is intolerable [Flury and Zernik 1931].

Vapor Pressure

18 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

1.1 ppm

RD50

7 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 14.4 ppm/4 hr

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHEMINFO;

Reference Link

EPA Pesticide Fact Sheet: Chloropicrin - 2008

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: