Agent Name

Chlorine

CAS Number

7782-50-5

Formula

Cl2

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Molecular chlorine; [NIOSH] Bertholite; [ChemIDplus] UN1017

Category

Oxidizers

Description

Greenish-yellow gas with a pungent, irritating odor; Note: Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas; [NIOSH] Vapor density = 2.48 (heavier than air); [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Used in water purification, paper manufacturing, and the synthesis of chlorinated hydrocarbons; [Levy, p. 409]

Comments

Liquid causes first degree burns on short exposure; [CHRIS] Listed as one of "major irritant airborne toxicants"; [LaDou, p. 523] Possible frostbite from contact with liquid; [NIOSH] When spilled in water “Chlorine dioxide, hydrate, frozen” can release large amounts of Chlorine. [ERG 2012] A lachrymator; [CHEMINFO] Causes lachrymation; [ICSC] Chlorine is fibrogenic to the lungs in the context of an acute inhalation exposure complicated by bronchiolitis obliterans.

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Chlorine

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

STEL (ACGIH)

1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

Ceiling(OSHA) = 1 ppm

MAK

0.5 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Exposures to 30 ppm have been reported to cause intense coughing fits and exposure to 40 to 60 ppm for 30 to 60 minutes or more may cause serious damage [ILO 1971]. A concentration of 34 to 51 ppm has been reported to be lethal in 1 to 1.5 hours [Freitag 1941] while 14 to 21 ppm has been suggested as being dangerous within 0.5 to 1 hour [NPIRI 1983].

Odor Threshold Low

0.02 ppm

Odor Threshold High

3.4 ppm

RD50

9 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 293 ppm/1 hr

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.080 ppm);

Half Life

No reports found; [TDR, p. 308]

Reference Link

ICSC: Chlorine

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Chronic Bronchitis

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Fibrogenic

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: