Agent Name

n-Pentane

CAS Number

109-66-0

Formula

C5-H12

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Amyl hydride; Pentan [Polish]; Pentane; Pentanen [Dutch]; Pentani [Italian]; Skellysolve A; Tetrafume; Tetrakil; Tetraspot; [ChemIDplus] normal-Pentane; Normal pentane; Pentanes; [CAMEO] UN1265

Category

Aliphatics, Saturated (<C12)

Description

Colorless liquid with a gasoline-like odor; Note: A gas above 97 degrees F. May be utilized as a fuel; [NIOSH] Clear colorless liquid; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Sources/Uses

Used as a chemical raw material and in lighter fluids, blowtorch fuels, laboratory solvents, blowing agents for plastics, gasoline additives, and aerosol propellants; [HSDB] Used as foaming agent for expanded polystyrene (EPS) and polyurethane, process diluent/carrier for polymerizations, formulation solvent in adhesives, and for other minor uses (pharmaceuticals, degreasing agents, lubricants, stain removers, and cleaning agents); [ExPub: CPS&Q: RARs - Final Risk Assessment Report]

Comments

Ingestion can cause aspiration into the lungs; May cause CNS effects; High atmospheric concentrations can cause oxygen deficiency leading to unconsciousness or death; [ICSC] Very high vapor concentrations may cause narcosis; Harmful by ingestion (may cause lung damage by aspiration); Vapor is not irritating to eyes or throat; Nearly harmless by skin contact; [CHRIS] Causes painful burning sensation and itching on skin contact; Five hour exposure causes blisters but no anesthesia; [HSDB] May cause irritation; Inhalation may cause drowsiness or dizziness; An aspiration hazard by ingestion (may cause lung injury); Targets the CNS, heart, and lungs; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

1000 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

1000 ppm

MAK

1000 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

1500 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other animal data: It has been reported that narcosis occurs after 5 to 60 minutes of exposure to 90,000 to 120,000 ppm [Patty 1963]. Human data: Mucous membrane irritation or other symptoms were not noted after a 10minute exposure of 5,000 ppm [Patty and Yant 1929].

Vapor Pressure

514 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

119 ppm

Odor Threshold High

1147 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 364,000mg/m3/4hr

Explanatory Notes

IDLH = 10% LEL (lower explosive limit); Odor threshold from AIHA; Flash point = -40 deg C;

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: