Agent Name

1,1-Dichloroethane

Alternative Name

Ethylidene chloride

CAS Number

75-34-3

Formula

C2-H4-Cl2

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Asymmetrical dichloroethane; 1,1-Dichlorethane; 1,1-Ethylidene dichloride; Chlorinated hydrochloric ether; Ethane, 1,1-dichloro-; Ethylidene chloride; Ethylidene dichloride; alpha,alpha-Dichloroethane; 1,1-Dichloorethaan [Dutch]; 1,1-Dichloraethan [German]; 1,1-Dicloroetano [Italian]; Aethylidenchlorid [German]; Chlorure d'ethylidene [French]; Cloruro di etilidene [Italian]; [ChemIDplus] Dichloromethylmethane; [Merck Index] Dichloroethane, 1,1-; 1,1-Ethylene dichloride; HCC 150A; [CAMEO] UN2362

Category

Chlorinated Aliphatics

Description

Colorless, oily liquid with a chloroform-like odor; [NIOSH] Clear colorless to light yellow liquid; [Acros Organics MSDS]

Sources/Uses

Used as a chemical intermediate, grain fumigant, and solvent for plastics and oils; in the past, used as an anesthetic; [ACGIH] Used as a cleaning agent, in metal degreasing, rubber cementing, in fabric spreading, ore flotation, fire extinguishing, as an insecticide spray, extraction solvent, coupling agent in antiknock gasoline, paint, varnish, and finish remover, and to make high vacuum rubber; [HSDB] Used as a reagent and solvent for paint and varnishes; [Merck Index]

Comments

1,1-Dichoroethane is less toxic to the liver than other chlorinated solvents. [ACGIH] The halogenated solvents are CNS depressants; A 14 year old boy developed fatal hepatorenal syndrome after ingesting about 50 ml of dichloroethane; [Sullivan, p. 739-40] May have CNS effects, causing unconsciousness at high exposure levels; May cause liver and kidney injury; [ICSC] An eye and respiratory tract irritant; Prolonged or repeated exposure can cause skin burns; Inhalation may cause CNS depression; May cause liver and kidney injury; [HSDB] An eye and respiratory tract irritant; Harmful by ingestion; [Acros Organics MSDS]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

100 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

100 ppm

MAK

100 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

3000 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Patty [1963] reported that rats survived 8hour exposures to 4,000 ppm, but died at 16,000 ppm [Smyth 1956].

Vapor Pressure

227 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

49 ppm

Odor Threshold High

1359 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 13,000 ppm/4hr

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from AIHA; Flash point = -17 deg C;

Half Life

Based on information from its use as an anesthetic in the past: completely removed within 2 days; [TDR, p. 490]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - 1,1-Dichloroethane

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
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Diseases

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