Agent Name

1,1,2-Trichloroethane

CAS Number

79-00-5

Formula

C2-H3-Cl3

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Ethane trichloride; beta-Trichloroethane; Vinyl trichloride; [NIOSH] 1,1,2-Trichlorethane; 1,2,2-Trichloroethane; Ethane, 1,1,2-trichloro-; Trojchloroetan(1,1,2) [Polish]; Vinyltrichloride; [ChemIDplus] beta-T; Trichloroethane; [CAMEO] UN3082

Category

Chlorinated Aliphatics

Description

Colorless liquid with a sweet, chloroform-like odor; [NIOSH] Clear colorless liquid with a sweet odor; [Matheson Tri-Gas MSDS]

Sources/Uses

Used primarily for synthesis of vinylidene chloride; also used as a solvent in pharmaceutical manufacturing; [ACGIH] Used in lacquers, adhesives, and resins; [HSDB] Used as a solvent for fats, waxes, natural resins, and alkaloids; [Merck Index]

Comments

Acute animal studies: narcosis, anesthesia, and injury to the liver and kidneys; [ACGIH] May cause CNS depression; May cause liver and kidney injury; Can be absorbed through skin; [ICSC] A skin and eye irritant; May cause smarting and reddening of skin if spilled and allowed to remain on clothes; A CNS depressant; Highly toxic by ingestion (liver and kidney damage); [CHRIS] Effects reported in humans include irritation of the conjunctiva, respiratory tract mucosa, and skin, narcotic effects at low concentrations, and fatty degeneration of the kidney and lung injury from chronic exposure; No adverse effects observed in 6-month inhalation studies of rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits; No evidence of developmental toxicity or teratogenicity in mice administered 350 mg/kg/day; [OECD SIDS] An irritant; A CNS depressant; May cause liver and kidney injury; [Matheson Tri-Gas MSDS]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

10 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

10 ppm

MAK

10 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

100 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: The chosen IDLH is based on the UCC [1972] report that 500 ppm killed 1 of 6 rats in 4 hours, and 4 of 6 rats in 8 hours. . . . Human data: None relevant for use in determining the revised IDLH.

Vapor Pressure

19 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.5 ppm

Odor Threshold High

167 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 2,000 ppm/4hr

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from "Quick Guide: The Electronic NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards"; The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Environmentally hazardous substances, liquid, n.o.s."

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

Flammability (NFPA)

1: Must be preheated

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: