Agent Name

1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

CAS Number

79-34-5

Formula

C2-H2-Cl4

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-; 1,1,2,2-Czterochloroetan [Polish]; 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloorethaan [Dutch]; 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloraethan [German]; 1,1,2,2-Tetrachlorethane [French]; 1,1,2,2-Tetracloroetano [Italian]; 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-dichloroethane; Acetosal; Acetylene tetrachloride; Bonoform; Cellon; Dichloro-2,2-dichloroethane; Ethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-; s-Tetrachloroethane; TCE (ambiguous); Tetrachlorethane; Tetrachloroethane; Tetrachloroethane (VAN); Tetrachlorure d'acetylene [French]; Westron; [ChemIDplus] Boroform; F 130; F 130 (halocarbon); sym-Tetrachloroethane; Symmetrical tetrachloroethane; TCA; TCE; 1,1,2,2-TCE; [CAMEO] UN1702

Category

Chlorinated Aliphatics

Description

Colorless to pale-yellow liquid with a pungent, chloroform-like odor; [NIOSH] Heavy liquid with a sweetish suffocating odor like chloroform; [Merck Index] Clear colorless liquid; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Sources/Uses

Used in synthesis of organic chemicals; used in the past as a solvent for degreasing and extracting; [ACGIH] Used as a nonflammable solvent for fats, oils, waxes, resins, cellulose acetate, rubber, copal, phosphorus, and sulfur, as a solvent in certain types of Friedel-Crafts reactions or phthalic anhydride condensations, to make paints, varnishes, rust removers, trichloroethylene, and other chlorinated hydrocarbons with two carbon atoms, in soil sterilization, weed killer, and insecticide formulations, in the determination of theobromine in cacao, as immersion fluid in crystallography, and to produce pathological changes in gastrointestinal tract, liver, and kidneys in the laboratory; [Merck Index] Other uses include alcohol denaturant, fumigant, dry cleaning agent, in photographic film, cement, and to make artificial silk, leather, and pearls; [NTP] Currently only produced and consumed on site in closed systems for the synthesis of other chlorinated hydrocarbons; [Reference #1]

Comments

Many cases of occupational toxic hepatitis were reported in the past. [ACGIH] At high enough concentrations, can induce lacrimation, narcosis, and liver damage; [CAMEO] A skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant; May cause CNS depression and impaired function; May cause kidney and liver injury; Can be absorbed through skin; [ICSC] No evidence of carcinogenicity in mice or rats; [NTP] Highly toxic to humans by acute exposure, mainly targeting the liver and kidney; May also cause nervous system and hematological system injury; Lack of data and conflicting results do not allow for assessment of reproductive or developmental toxicity; [Reference #1] May cause irritation; Toxic by ingestion; Highly toxic by inhalation and skin absorption; Targets the nerves, liver, aned blood; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Restricted

Not found in any pesticide products registered in the US; [NPIRS]

Reference Link

OECD SIDS: 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane - 2002

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm

MAK

1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

100 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: A 30minute exposure to 146 ppm has caused vertigo, irritation of the mucous membranes, sense of pressure in the head, and fatigue; the same effects were noted after a 10minute exposure to 335 ppm [Lehmann et al. 1936; Negherbon 1959].

Vapor Pressure

4.62 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.23 ppm

Odor Threshold High

7.9 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 1,000 ppm/4hr

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 7.3 ppm);

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

Adverse Effects
Nephrotoxin

Yes

Lacrimator

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Primary

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: