Agent Name

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

CAS Number

872-50-4

Formula

C5-H9-N-O

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone; 1-Methyl-5-pyrrolidinone; 1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one; 1-Methylpyrrolidinone; 1-Methylpyrrolidone; 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-; M-Pyrol; Methylpyrrolidone; N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone; N-Methyl-gamma-butyrolactam; N-Methylpyrrolidinone; N-Methylpyrrolidone; NMP; Norleucine, 5-oxo-, DL; [ChemIDplus] UN1993

Category

Other Solvents

Description

A clear colorless liquid with a fish-like odor; [CAMEO] Almost colorless liquid with an amine odor; [AIHA]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for chemicals and resins in the microelectronics and pharmaceutical industries; [HSDB] Widely used to replace other solvents, e.g., for paint stripping and lube oil extraction; it is used as a solvent for pesticides, coatings, adhesives, dyes, pigments, polymers, and polyurethane foam cleanup. [ACGIH]

Comments

It is absorbed through the skin; a severe eye irritant; [CSH, p. 291] "It is mainly an irritant, but it can cause severe contact dermatitis due to prolonged contact." [Kanerva, p. 1816] Experimental animals experience lethargy and respiratory difficulty after inhalation. [HSDB] Some animal studies found fetal loss and birth defects after high doses during early pregnancy. [Frazier, p. 345] NMP is a cyclic amide used as a solvent, catalyst, formulating agent, and graffiti remover. Significant absorption occurs through the skin. 2-HMSI can be used for biological monitoring of workers. [Akesson B, Carnerup MA, Jonsson BAG. Evaluation of exposure biomarkers from percutaneous absorption of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Scand J Work Environ 2004;30(4):306-312] In high-dose animal studies, adverse effects include CNS depression and changes to the liver, kidneys, and blood cells. [ACGIH] A skin and eye irritant; [ICSC] Danger of cutaneous absorption; [AIHA]

Reference Link

Irritant cutaneous reactions to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)

Exposure Assessment
BEI

5-Hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in urine = 100 mg/L at end of shift;

MAK

20 ppm, vapor

WEEL

10 ppm

Vapor Pressure

0.29 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

4 ppm

Odor Threshold High

10 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 1,000 mg/m3

Explanatory Notes

Flash point = 96 deg C; Odor thresholds from CSH;

Reference Link

ICSC: N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: