Agent Name

N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

CAS Number

872-50-4

Formula

C5-H9-N-O

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone; 1-Methyl-5-pyrrolidinone; 1-Methylazacyclopentan-2-one; 1-Methylpyrrolidinone; 1-Methylpyrrolidone; 2-Pyrrolidinone, 1-methyl-; M-Pyrol; Methylpyrrolidone; N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone; N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone; N-Methyl-gamma-butyrolactam; N-Methylpyrrolidinone; N-Methylpyrrolidone; NMP; Norleucine, 5-oxo-, DL; [ChemIDplus] UN1993

Category

Other Solvents

Description

A clear colorless liquid with a fish-like odor; [CAMEO] Almost colorless liquid with an amine odor; [AIHA]

Sources/Uses

Used as a solvent for chemicals and resins in the microelectronics and pharmaceutical industries; [HSDB] Widely used to replace other solvents, e.g., for paint stripping and lube oil extraction; it is used as a solvent for pesticides, coatings, adhesives, dyes, pigments, polymers, and polyurethane foam cleanup. [ACGIH]

Comments

It is absorbed through the skin; a severe eye irritant; [CSH, p. 291] "It is mainly an irritant, but it can cause severe contact dermatitis due to prolonged contact." [Kanerva, p. 1816] Experimental animals experience lethargy and respiratory difficulty after inhalation. [HSDB] Some animal studies found fetal loss and birth defects after high doses during early pregnancy. [Frazier, p. 345] NMP is a cyclic amide used as a solvent, catalyst, formulating agent, and graffiti remover. Significant absorption occurs through the skin. 2-HMSI can be used for biological monitoring of workers. [Akesson B, Carnerup MA, Jonsson BAG. Evaluation of exposure biomarkers from percutaneous absorption of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Scand J Work Environ 2004;30(4):306-312] In high-dose animal studies, adverse effects include CNS depression and changes to the liver, kidneys, and blood cells. [ACGIH] A skin and eye irritant; [ICSC] Danger of cutaneous absorption; [AIHA]

Reference Link

Irritant cutaneous reactions to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)

Exposure Assessment
BEI

5-Hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in urine = 100 mg/L at end of shift;

MAK

20 ppm, vapor

WEEL

10 ppm

Vapor Pressure

0.29 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

4 ppm

Odor Threshold High

10 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 1,000 mg/m3

Explanatory Notes

Flash point = 96 deg C; Odor thresholds from CSH;

Reference Link

ICSC: N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone

Flammability (NFPA)

2: High ambient temperature required

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: