Agent Name

Gold

Alternative Name

Gold and compounds

CAS Number

7440-57-5

Formula

Au, varies

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

Burnish gold; C.I. 77480; C.I. Pigment Metal 3; CI 77480; CI Pigment metal 3; Colloidal gold; Gold flake; Gold leaf; Gold powder; Gold, colloidal; Gold-197; Magnesium gold purple; Shell Gold; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Metals, Inorganic Compounds

Description

Yellow, ductile metal, relatively soft; [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Used in photography and medicine--treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; used in alloyed or plated jewelry and dental crowns; also used to color glass, enamel, and porcelain and to guild or electroplate in art and electronics; [Kanerva, p. 512] Gold chloride used as a toner in photography; [www.ci.tucson.az.us/arthazards/medium.html] Gold nanoparticle applications include catalysts, drug delivery, solar cells, printable inks on electronic chips, detection of biomarkers of disease, probes in electron microscopy, and removal of mercury from water; [HSDB]

Comments

Allergic contact dermatitis reported in electroplaters, photographers, guilders, machinists, dental technicians, and jewelers; [Kanerva, p. 516] Gold is a "hepatotoxic agent." [Zimmerman, p. 4] Adverse effects of organic gold salts used to treat rheumatoid arthritis include hematuria and nephrotic syndrome. This effect has not been reported in industry. [Rosenstock, p. 574] Danger of skin sensitization--soluble compounds only; [MAK] Most metal compounds of nitrates, acetates, chlorides, bromides, iodides, and sulfates are soluble, while most hydroxide, carbonate, and phosphate metal compounds are insoluble. [Nordberg, p. 19] Gold nanoparticles coated with hyaluronic acid were found to be weakly embryotoxic (less embryotoxic than gold salts); [PMID 20566333] "High doses of gold were embryotoxic and induced teratogenic effects in rats and rabbits." Rats inhaling gold nanoparticles showed mild lung inflammation. Patients receiving gold therapy may have dermatitis, stomatitis, proteinuria, nephrosis, leukopenia, and rarely, thrombocytopenia, aplastic anemia, and injury to CNS, liver, and lungs. Thrombocytopenia may be the first sign of fatal aplastic anemia. [Nordberg, p. 817-29]

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Anemia

Anemia, Aplastic

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

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Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

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