Agent Name

Chloramphenicol

Alternative Name

Chloromycetin

CAS Number

56-75-7

Formula

C11-H12-Cl2-N2-O5

Major Category

Other Uses

Synonyms

Chloromycetin; D-(-)-threo-2,2-Dichloro-N-[beta-hydroxy-alpha-(hydroxy-methyl)-p-nitrophenethyl]acetamide; Chloroamphenicol; 2,2-Dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]acetamide; D-threo-N-Dichloroacetyl-1-p-nitrophenyl-2-amino-1,3-propane-diol; D(-)-threo-2-Dichloroacetamido-1-p-nitrophenyl-propanediol; D-threo-N-(1,1`-Dihydroxy-1-p-nitrophenylisopropyl)dichloroacetamide; Ak-chlor; Alficetyn; Anacetin; Aquamycetin; Austracol; CAF; Chemiceticol; Chlomycol; Chloramex; Chloramfilin; Chloramsaar; Chlorasol; Veticol; Viceton; Opclor; Ophthochlor; Pantovernil; Paraxin; Quemicetina; Ronfenil; Septicol; Sintomicetina; Sno Phenicol; Stanomycetin; Synthomycetine; Tea-Cetin; Tevcocin; Tifomycine; Treomicetina; Unimycetin; Chloricol; Chlorocaps; Chlorocid; Chloronitrin; Chloroptic; Cidocetine; Ciplamycetin; Cloramfen; Cloramficin; Cloramicol; Clorocyn; Cloromissan; Cylphenicol; Duphenicol; Embacetin; Enicol; Enteromycetin; Farmicetina; Fenicol; Globenicol; Interomycetine; Intramycetin; Juvamycetin; Kamaver; Kemicetine; Klorita; Levomicetina; Levomycetin; Loromicetina; Myscel; Mycinol; Novomycetin; Chloromycetin; D-(-)-threo-1-(p-Nitrophenyl)-2-dichloroacetamido-1,3-propanediol; Chlormycetin R; Amphicol; Cloramical; Intramyctin; Leukomycin; Acetamide, 2,2-dichloro-N-[2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)ethyl]-, [R-(R*,R*)]-; CHLORAMPHENICOL CRYSTALLINE; Chlorsig; [ChemFinder]

Category

Pharmaceuticals

Description

Needles or elongated plates from water or ethylene dichloride; [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Broad-spectrum antibiotic; [HSDB]

Comments

Allergic contact dermatitis reported in pharmaceutical workers; [Marks, p. 189-90] Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic, and many side effects have been reported after ingestion of therapeutic doses including, rarely, bone marrow suppression. [HSDB] The lowest dose to cause reversible bone marrow depression was 2000 mg/day for 21 days. While the reversible bone marrow depression is dose related, the rare aplastic anemia is not dose related and is thought to be an idiosyncratic reaction in susceptible individuals. IARC has noted cases of leukemia developing in patients suffering from chloramphenical-induced aplastic anemia. Occupational allergic dermatitis reported in ophthalmologists and farmers using topical chloramphenicol solutions; No evidence of significant skin absorption; Toxic to embryos and fetuses in animal studies at 1000 mg/kg-day; [AIHA]

Exposure Assessment
WEEL

0.5 mg/m3

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Anemia

Anemia, Aplastic

IARC Carcinogen

Probable Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: