Agent Name

Denatonium benzoate

Alternative Name

Bitrex

CAS Number

3734-33-6

Formula

C21-H29-N2-O.C7-H5-O2

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Denatonium benzoate anhydrous; N-(2-((2,6-Dimethylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-N,N-diethylbenzenemethanaminium benzoate; Anispray; Aversion; Benzenemethanaminium, N-(2-((2,6-dimethylphenyl)amino)-2-oxoethyl)-N,N-diethyl-, benzoate; Benzoate de denatonium [INN-French]; Benzoato de denatonio [INN-Spanish]; Benzyldiethyl((2,6-xylylcarbamoyl)methyl)ammonium benzoate; Bitrex; Denatonii benzoas [INN-Latin]; Denatonium; Gori; Lidocaine benzyl benzoate; THS-839; WIN 16568; Ammonium, benzyldiethyl((2,6-xylylcarbamoyl)methyl)-, benzoate; ((2,6-Xylylcarbamoyl)methyl)diethyl benzyl ammonium benzoate; [ChemIDplus] Lignocaine benzyl benzoate; [Merck Index] ARBINOL B; [ToxPlanet: EFSA: DAR - Vol. 1]

Category

Other Aromatics (Nitrogen)

Description

Solid; [Merck Index] White odorless solid; [ToxPlanet: EFSA: DAR - Vol. 1]

Sources/Uses

Used as an alcohol denaturant and flavor in pharmaceuticals; "Added to toxic substances as a deterrent to accidental ingestion"; [Merck Index] Formerly registered in the US for use as a disinfectant; [NPIRS] Used in the EU to deter deer from chewing on trees; [ToxPlanet: EFSA: DAR - Vol. 1] Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products; [EPA] "Denatonium is used in denatured alcohol, antifreeze, nail biting preventions, respirator mask fit-testing, animal repellents, liquid soaps, and shampoos." [Wikipedia]

Comments

Causes somnolence, tremor, and ataxia in oral lethal-dose studies of rabbits and rats; [RTECS] One of the most bitter substances known; [Merck Index] There is one 1980 case report of urticaria and asthma; [PMID 7214890] Classified in the EU as harmful by ingestion, highly toxic by inhalation, and may cause serious eye injury; [ToxPlanet: EFSA: DAR - Vol. 1] A skin and strong eye irritant; Harmful by ingestion; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

Exposure Assessment
Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 200 mg/m3

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