Agent Name

Ammonium hydroxide

CAS Number

1336-21-6

Formula

H5-N-O

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Ammonia solution, strong; Spirit of hartshorn; Ammonia aqueous; Ammonia solution; Ammonia water; Ammonia water 29%; Ammonia, aqua; Ammonia, monohydrate; Aqua ammonia; Aquammonia; Household ammonia; SX 1; SX 1 (ammonia water); Ammonia, aqueous solution; [ChemIDplus] UN2073; UN2672; UN3318

Category

Bases

Description

Very volatile colorless solution of ammonia in water; [ICSC]

Sources/Uses

Used in manufacturing rayon and other textiles, pharmaceuticals, paper, rubber, detergents, inks, and other organic chemicals; Also used in photographic development, metal extracting, and water purification; Also used as a fertilizer for direct application to the soil, a household cleanser, and a food additive; [HSDB] Also used as a mordant in textile dyeing; [www.ci.tucson.az.us/arthazards/medium.html] Other uses include leather processing and electroplating; [OECD SIDS] Used to regulate acidity in foods; [JECFA]

Comments

Corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] High inhalation exposure can cause pulmonary edema. [HSDB] A corrosive substance that can cause injury to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; Inhalation of high concentrations may cause laryngeal edema, respiratory tract inflammation, and pneumonia; Prolonged or repeated exposure to vapor or aerosol may cause injury to lungs; [ICSC] Solution of <28% aqueous ammonia: Causes burns; Short-term exposure causes smarting of the skin and first-degree burns; Second-degree burns can result from extended exposure; [CHRIS] Human inhalation of 408 ppm causes focal fibrosis (pneumoconiosis) and acute pulmonary edema; [RTECS] Causes burns; A lachrymator; Toxic by ingestion; Inhalation may cause corrosive injuries to upper respiratory tract and lungs; [Aldrich MSDS] See "Ammonia."

Exposure Assessment
Odor Threshold Low

50 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (human) = 5,000 ppm

Explanatory Notes

VP = 2160 mm Hg @ 25 deg C; [HSDB] Odor threshold from CHRIS; ERG Guide is for ammonium hydroxide with more than 10% but not more than 35% ammonia;

Reference Link

ICSC: Ammonium hydroxide (10%-35% solution)

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: