Agent Name

Sodium hypochlorite

CAS Number

7681-52-9

Formula

Cl-O.Na

Major Category

Other Uses

Synonyms

AD Gel; Antiformin; B-K liquid; Carrel-Dakin solution; Chloros; Chlorox; Cloralex; Cloropool; Clorox; Clorox liquid bleach; Dakin's solution; Dakins half; Dakins quarter; Dakins solution; Deosan; Deosan Green Label Steriliser; Di-Dak-Sol; Dispatch; Hospital Milton; Household bleach; Hyclorite; Hypochlorite sodium; Hyposan and Voxsan; Hypure; Hypure N; Javel water; Javelle water; Javex; Klorocin; Milton; Milton Crystals; Modified Dakin's solution; Neo-cleaner; Neoseptal CL; Parozone; Purin B; Sodium hypochlorite [solution, diluted]; Sodium oxychloride; Solutions, Dakin's; Sunnysol 150; Surchlor; XY 12; Youxiaolin; Chlorinated water (sodium hypochlorite); Hypochlorous acid, sodium salt; Sodium hypochlorite solution; Sodium hypochlorite solution (15% or less); [ChemIDplus] UN1791

Category

Biocides/Disinfectants

Description

Greenish-yellow liquid with a disagreeable, sweetish odor; [HSDB] Produced as the pentahydrate; Solid with a mp of 18 deg C; [Merck Index]

Sources/Uses

Used as a disinfectant and bleaching agent with applications in the chemical, paper, textile, water treatment, and dairy industries; it is used to disinfectant water in swimming pools and cooling towers of power plants. [HSDB] 5% solution used as a hypo eliminator in photo development; [www.ci.tucson.az.us/arthazards/medium.html] Used in the EU on mushroom crops; Also used in the paint, lime, glass, pharmaceutical, metal (detoxify cyanide baths), and synthetics industries; [EFSA]

Comments

Corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] Addition of acid to hypochlorite solution releases chlorine gas; Addition of ammonia releases chloramine gas; High inhalation exposure, especially if in confined space, can cause pulmonary edema; Ingestion can cause methemoglobinemia; Ingestion or 3% to 5% solution will cause burning of mouth and throat without other injury expected; [HSDB] Household bleaches (approximately 5% sodium hypochlorite) are irritants; more concentrated bleaches (10-15% sodium hypochlorite) are corrosive. [ICSC] The pentahydrate is decomposed by carbon dioxide in the air; The anhydrous form is highly explosive; [Merck Index] Only commercially produced as an aqueous solution; [EFSA] See "Hypochlorous acid."

Reference Link

ATSDR - Medical Management: Calcium Hypochlorite/Sodium Hypochlorite

Exposure Assessment
WEEL

STEL = 2 mg/m3

Explanatory Notes

The estimated odor threshold is the same as chlorine, 0.3 ppm; [AIHA] The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Hypochlorite solution."

Reference Link

ICSC: Sodium hypochlorite (solution, active chlorine >10%)

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Secondary

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
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Toxicity Information

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