Agent Name

Ethyl nitrite

CAS Number

109-95-5

Formula

C2-H5-N-O2

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Ethyl nitrite spirit; Ethylester kyseliny dusite [Czech]; Hyponitrous ether; Nitrosyl ethoxide; Nitrous acid, ethyl ester; Nitrous ether; Nitrous ethyl ether; Spirit of ethyl nitrite; Spirit of nitrous ether; Sweet spirit of niter; Sweet spirit of nitre; UN1194; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Nitrates and Nitrites

Description

Colorless to yellowish liquid with a rum-like odor; [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Used to flavor foods and to synthesize other organic chemicals; [HSDB]

Comments

Inhalation or ingestion can cause headache, rapid pulse, hypotension, and unconsciousness. [CHRIS] One fatality was reported after the breakage of a 4 liter bottle containing 24% ethyl nitrite in alcohol. Three cases of methemoglobinemia were reported in workers exposed during the synthesis of hydantoin (glycolylurea). [HSDB] Inhalation of high concentrations causes narcosis; Chronic exposure to chemicals with this reactive group can cause hepatitis; [CAMEO]

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Methemoglobin in blood = 1.5% of hemoglobin during or at end of shift. [ACGIH]

Vapor Pressure

620 mm Hg

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 160 ppm/4H

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Methemoglobinemia

Methemoglobinemia, Primary

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Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: