Agent Name

Vinyl chloride

Alternative Name

Chloroethylene

CAS Number

75-01-4

Formula

C2-H3-Cl

Major Category

Plastics & Rubber

Synonyms

Chloroethene; Chloroethylene; Ethylene monochloride; Monochloroethene; Monochloroethylene; VC; Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM); [NIOSH] UN1086

Category

Vinyl Halides

Description

Colorless gas or liquid (below 7 degrees F) with a pleasant odor at high concentrations; Note: Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

The highest exposures to vinyl chloride occurred in polyvinyl chloride polymerization plants during reactor vessel cleaning. [LaDou, p. 520]

Comments

Increased incidence of liver cancer (angiosarcoma) was found in workers who had high exposure to vinyl chloride monomer while cleaning reaction vessels. [LaDou, p. 298-9] "There is compelling evidence that exposure to vinyl chloride is associated with angiosarcoma of the liver, and strong evidence that it is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Together with the observation that vinyl chloride increases the risk for liver cirrhosis, which is a known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, the findings from two large multicentre cohort studies provide convincing evidence that vinyl chloride causes hepatocellular carcinoma as well as angiosarcoma of the liver." [IARC Monograph 100F] There is limited evidence that vinyl chloride caused increased birth defects in exposed human populations. [ATSDR Case Studies #29] Vinyl chloride was once evaluated as an anesthetic; it can cause central nervous system depression after inhalation of high concentrations. [ATSDR Medical Management] Possible frostbite from contact with liquid; [NIOSH] Vinyl chloride, stabilized (UN1086) has warning of explosive polymerization; [ERG 2016]

Restricted

See 29 CFR 1910.1017;

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Vinyl chloride

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

1 ppm, STEL(OSHA) = 5 ppm (avg. not exceeding any 15 min)

Odor Threshold Low

10 ppm

Odor Threshold High

20 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 180,000/15m

Explosive Polymerization

Yes

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from AIHA; Flash point = -78 deg C;

Half Life

Based on limited data: "fairly rapid"; [TDR, p. 1224]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Vinyl Chloride

Adverse Effects
Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Human

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: