Agent Name

Tetramethyl lead

CAS Number

75-74-1

Formula

C4-H12-Pb

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

Lead tetramethyl; Tetramethylplumbane; TML; [NIOSH]

Category

Metals, Organic Compounds

Description

Colorless liquid (unless dyed red, orange, or blue) with a fruity odor. [Note: Main usage is in anti-knock additives for gasoline.] [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Tetraethyl and tetramethyl lead (CAS # 78-00-2 & 75-74-1), also called alkyl lead, are used as anti-knock agents in gasoline. [ATSDR Case Studies # 1]

Comments

The presenting symptoms of acute alkyl lead intoxication are anorexia, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, headache, depression, and irritability. [ATSDR Case Studies # 1] Toxic by ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption. Overexposure may cause disturbed vision, tremors, seizures, and brain damage. Monitor workers with urinary lead measurements. [ACGIH] Lead compounds, organic are not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans. [IARC] See "Lead" and linked occupational diseases.

Restricted

Organic lead was added to gasoline in the US until January 1996. [ATSDR Case Studies, Lead Toxicity]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

Bioaccumulates

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.15 mg/m3, as Pb

PEL (OSHA)

0.07 mg/m3, as Pb

MAK

0.05 mg/m3, as Pb

IDLH (NIOSH)

40 mg/m3, as Pb

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other animal data: It has been reported that signs of acute tetramethyl lead intoxication in rats were similar to that seen after acute poisoning with tetraethyl lead [ACGIH 1991].

Vapor Pressure

23 mm Hg

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (mice) = 8,500 mg/m3/30M

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Anemia

Anemia, Hemolytic

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: