Agent Name

PHOSPHIDES

Alternative Name

CLASS

CAS Number

Varies

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

CLASSES; Water-Reactive Materials: Aluminum phosphide; Calcium phosphide; Magnesium aluminum phosphide; Magnesium phosphide; Potassium phosphide; Sodium phosphide; Strontium phosphide; Less Water-Reactive Materials: Stannic phosphide; Zinc phosphide; [ERG 2008]

Category

Phosphides

Sources/Uses

Aluminum phosphide and magnesium phosphide are used in pest control; Aluminum phosphide, calcium phosphide, and zinc phosphide are used as rodenticides; Gallium phosphide and indium phosphide are used as semiconductors in the production of light-emitting diodes; [Ullmann]

Comments

Phosphides react with water to form the highly toxic and flammable phosphine; [Hawley] "Phosphides react quickly upon contact with moisture or acids to give the very toxic gas phosphine; phosphides also can react vigorously with oxidizing materials." [EPA] These are mainly binary metal phosphides; Over 500 different compounds have been described; [Ullmann] Phosphides are one of the four binary salts that have specific hazards (nitrides, carbides, hydrides, and phosphides); Phosphides give off phosphine gas, and a corrosive base is formed from contact with water. The corrosive base is the hydroxide of the metal that is attached to the phosphorus in the phosphide compounds; [Burke, p. 21] Substances not listed in the Phosphides category in Haz-Map include "Uranium phosphide," "Cadmium phosphide," and "Rare Earth Metals." See "Phosphine."

Exposure Assessment
Dangerous When Wet

Yes - A material that, by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material, per hour; [ERG 2004]

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: