Agent Name

Acetone cyanohydrin

CAS Number

75-86-5

Formula

C4-H7-N-O

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

Cyanohydrin-2-propanone; 2-Cyano-2-propanol; alpha-Hydroxyisobutyronitrile; 2-Hydroxy-2-methyl-propionitrile; 2-Methyllactonitrile; [NIOSH] UN1541

Category

Nitriles

Description

Colorless liquid with a faint odor of bitter almond. (Note: Forms cyanide in the body.) [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used to manufacture insecticides, methyl methacrylate, and other organic chemicals; [HSDB]

Comments

Liquid causes first degree burns on short exposure; [CHRIS] When heated to 248 degrees F. or to lower temperatures under alkaline conditions, acetone cyanohydrin will decompose, releasing hydrogen cyanide. Hepatic necrosis is seen in rats fed 5 mg twice a week for 3 to 8 months. A lachrymator; [HSDB] At room temperature, it rapidly reaches harmful concentrations concentrations and can cause asphyxiation and death. [ICSC] Rats survive 5 minute exposures to saturated concentrations. [CHEMINFO] Occupational fatalities have occurred after accidental splashing of the face and clothing; [AIHA]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TIH

Yes

Dangerous When Wet

Yes - A material that, by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material, per hour; [ERG 2004]

Ceiling (ACGIH)

5 mg/m3, as CN

Vapor Pressure

0.34 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

3 mg/m3

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 63 ppm/4h

Explanatory Notes

Acetone cyanohydrin (stabilized) vapor pressure, kPa at 20 degrees C: 3.0 (22.5 mm Hg) [ICSC] Flash Point = 165 deg F; Odor threshold (recognition); [CHEMINFO] Not TIH in land-based spills, but TiH substance released when spilled in water; [ERG 2016]

Reference Link

ICSC: Acetone cyanohydrin

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Other Poison

Chemical Asphyxiant

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

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Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: