Agent Name

p-Xylene

Alternative Name

1,4-Dimethylbenzene

CAS Number

106-42-3

Formula

C8-H10

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

1,4-Dimethylbenzene; 1,4-Xylene; 4-Xylene; Benzene, 1,4-dimethyl-; Chromar; Scintillar; p-Dimethylbenzene; p-Methyltoluene; p-Xylol; Benzene, p-dimethyl-; Xylene, p-; Xylene, p-isomer; [ChemIDplus] para-Xylene; [ICSC] Paraxylene; PX; [HSDB] UN1307

Category

Aromatic Solvents

Description

Colorless solid at low temperature; mp = 13-14 deg C; [Merck Index] Colorless liquid with a sweet odor; [CHRIS]

Sources/Uses

Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products; [EPA] Found in coal tar; Commercial xylene is a mixture of the o-, m-, and p- isomers; Used as a solvent, raw material, catgut sterilant, and in microscopy; [Merck Index] Used predominately to make purified terephthalic acid (PTA) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) which are used in polyester production; Also used as a solvent, for paints, in the printing trade, and in the production of di-paraxylene and herbicides; [HSBD]

Comments

A skin and eye irritant; May have CNS effects; An aspiration hazard by ingestion (may cause chemical pneumonitis); May have adverse effects on human reproduction or development, based on animal studies; [ICSC] May cause smarting and reddening of skin if spilled and allowed to remain on clothes; High vapor concentrations may cause mild smarting of eyes and respiratory system; May cause liver and kidney injury; [CHRIS] A local irritant; Inhalation of high concentrations may cause narcotic effects, severe coughing, and pulmonary edema; Ingestion may cause kidney and liver injury; [NTP] A skin irritant; Harmful by inhalation and skin absorption; May cause narcosis, lung irritation, chest pain, pulmonary edema, CNS depression, blood disorders, liver and kidney injury, and reproductive disorders; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS] See "Xylene isomers."

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Methylhippuric acids in urine = 1.5 g/g creatinine; end of shift; This BEI is for technical or commercial grades of xylenes;

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

No

TLV (ACGIH)

100 ppm

STEL (ACGIH)

150 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

100 ppm

MAK

100 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

900 ppm

Vapor Pressure

8.84 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.05 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 4,550 ppm4hr

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHRIS; The Guide in the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Xylenes."

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: