Agent Name

Shale oils

CAS Number

68308-34-9

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Blue oil; Crude shale oils; Green oil; Oil, shale; Raw shale oil; Shale oil; Unfinished lubricating oil; UN1288; [ChemIDplus] Kerogen; [Hawley] Oil shale: Marlstone; [Rom, p. 532]

Category

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Description

Oil shale: ". . . a layered, gray-brown sedimentary rock"; [Rom, p. 532]

Sources/Uses

Lubricating oils derived from shale; [IARC] Has been extracted from deposits of sedimentary shale in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming by heating to 425-535 degrees C with a yield of less than 1 barrel per ton of shale processed; [Hawley]

Comments

Studies of the Scottish shale-oil industry and cotton-textile workers showed increased incidence of skin cancer (mule-spinners' cancer). [IARC] There were 4 cases of complicated pneumoconiosis in a study of 1,664 Scottish oil shale miners. This industry existed in Scotland from 1850 through 1962. Silca was found in the lung tissue of 3 miners. Other miners with pneumoconiosis had reduced pulmonary function values. 325 U.S. shale oil workers, employed 1948-1969, had no increased skin cancer or respiratory disease compared to controls (Utah coal miners). [Rom, p. 532-3; Rosenstock, p. 413]

Reference Link

Shale-Oils (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Supplement7, 1987)

Adverse Effects
Fibrogenic

Yes

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: