Agent Name

Vitamin B12

Alternative Name


CAS Number




Major Category

Biological Agents


1H-Benzimidazole, 5,6-dimethyl-1-(3-O-phosphono-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)-, monoester with cobinamide cyanide hydroxide, inner salt; 1H-Benzimidazole, 5,6-dimethyl-1-(3-O-phosphono-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)-, monoester with cobinamide cyanide, inner salt; 5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazolyl cyanocobamide; 5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazolyl-CO-cyanocobamide; 5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazolylcobamide cyanide; Anacobin; B 12; B-12; B-Twelv-Ora; B-Twelve; B-Twelve Ora; B12; Berubigen; Betalin 12; Betalin 12 Crystalline; Betalin-12; Betolvex; Betolvex (VAN); Bevatine-12; Bevidox; Bevidox concentrate; Biocobalamine; Byladoce; CN-B12; Cabadon M; Calomist; Cianocobalamina [INN-Spanish]; Cobadoce forte; Cobalamin; Cobalamin concentrate; Cobalamin, cyanide; Cobalamin, cyano-; Cobalamin, cyano-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole-; Cobalin; Cobamide, alpha-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazolyl-, cyanide; Cobamide, cyano-5,6-dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole-; Cobamin; Cobavite; Cobinamide, cyanide hydroxide, dihydrogen phosphate; Cobinamide, cyanide hydroxide, dihydrogen phosphate (ester), inner salt, 3'-ester with 5,6-dimethyl-1-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-benzimidazole; Cobinamide, cyanide, dihydrogen phosphate (ester), inner salt, 3'- ester with 5,6-dimethyl-1-alpha-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-benzimidazole; Cobione; Coobalamed; Copharvit 5000; Cosmo-Rey; Cotel; Covit; Crystamin; Crystamine; Crystimin; Crystimin-1000; Crystwel; Cyano-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolylcobamide; Cyano-B12; Cyanobalamin concentrate; Cyanocobalamin; Cyanocobalamine [INN-French]; Cyanocobalaminum [INN-Latin]; Cycobemin; Cycolamin; Cykobemin; Cykobeminet; Cynobal; Cyomin; Cyredin; Cytacon; Cytamen; Cytobion; Depinar; Dicopac Kit; Dimethylbenzimidazoylcobamide; Distivit (B12 peptide); Dobetin; Docemine; Docibin; Docigram; Dodecabee; Dodecavite; Dodex; Ducobee; Duodecibin; Embiol; Emociclina; Eritron; Eritrone; Erycytol; Erythrotin; Euhaemon; Extrinsic factor; Factor II; Factor II (vitamin B12); Factor II (vitamin); Fresmin; Hemo-B-doze; Hemomin; Hepacon-B12; Hepagon; Hepavis; Hepcovite; Hylugel plus; LLD factor; Lactobacillus lactis dorner factor; Macrabin; Magravon; Megalovel; Milbedoce; Nagravon; Nascobal; Normocytin; Novidroxin; Pernaemon; Pernaevit; Pernipuron; Plecyamin; Poyamin; Rebramin; Redamina; Redisol; Rhodacryst; Rubesol; Rubivite; Rubramin; Rubramin PC; Rubripca; Rubrocitol; Ruvite; Sytobex; Vatimin B12; Vi-Twel; Vibalt; Vibisone; Virubra; Vita-rubra; Vitamin B12 complex; Vitamin B12 preparation; Vitamine B-12; Vitamine B12; Vitarubin; Vitral; Cobinamide, cyanide phosphate 3'-ester with 5,6-dimethyl-1-alpha-D- ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, inner salt; [ChemIDplus]


Vitamins and Derivatives


Dark red odorless solid; Hygroscopic; [Merck Index] Dark red powder; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]


Produced by bacteria, cobalamins (hydroxocobalamin and cyanocobalamin) are analogs of vitamin B12 that differ only in the beta-ligand of the cobalt; Found in fish, meat, liver, and dairy products, but not in plants; Also occur naturally in soil, water, activated sewage sludge, and manure; Used as a vitamin (hematopoietic); [Merck Index] Used as a nutritional supplement and stabilizer or thickener for foods; [FDA] Permitted for use as an inert ingredient in non-food pesticide products; [EPA] Used to perform Schilling's test (pernicious anemia or other malabsorption disorders), as a medicine, nutrient, and animal feed supplement; [HSDB] Hydroxocabalamin is used to treat cyanide poisoning. [Olson, p. 494-6]


Treatment of patients with hydroxocobalamin can cause red urine, erythema, rash, elevated blood pressure, nausea, headache, and IV infusion site injury. [Olson, p. 495] May cause irritation; [Sigma-Aldrich MSDS]

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