Agent Name

Rubber production industry

Major Category

Other Uses


Exposures, Complex


"Rubber manufacturing generally comprises the following operations: raw materials handling, weighing and mixing; milling; extruding and calendering; component assembly and building; 'curing' or vulcanizing; inspection and finishing; storage and dispatch. . . . Potential exposures include N-nitrosoamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, solvents, and phthalates." [Reference #1]


A Group 1 carcinogen: bladder, lung, and stomach cancer and leukemia and lymphoma; "Evidence from meta-analyses published by Stewart et al. (1999), Borak et al. (2005) and Alder et al. (2006) was not considered since these studies combined a variety of exposure circumstances that would tend to dilute any observed effect. The Working Group realized that the complexity of occupational exposure in the rubber-manufacturing industry had so far precluded a clear conclusion about an association between increased cancer mortality and incidence and exposure to particular chemicals (except historically well known associations between 2-naphthylamine and bladder cancer, and benzene and leukaemia). . . . While it is clear that exposure to some agents in the rubber-manufacturing industry has been reduced over time, the results of recent cytogenetic studies continue to raise concerns about cancer risks." [Reference #1]

Reference Link

IARC 2012: Occupational Exposures in the Rubber-Manufacturing Industry

Exposure Assessment
Adverse Effects
IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information


Related Information in HazMap

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: