Agent Name

Strong inorganic acid mists

Major Category

Other Uses


Exposures, Complex


Workers are exposed in manufacturing (phosphate fertilizer, isopropanol, synthetic ethanol, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and lead batteries), smelting copper, and pickling and other acid treatments of metals; Highest potential average exposure levels to sulfuric acid: metal pickling and production of sulfuric acid and isopropanol; Moderate: production of soap and detergent, nitric acid, and ethanol; Low: copper and zinc refining and production of fertilizer and lead batteries; Other minor uses of sulfuric acid include petroleum refining, mining, metallurgy and ore processing, pulp and paper processing, cellulose fibers production, and water treatment; [Reference #1]


A Group 1 carcinogen: cancer of the larynx; High exposures (> 1 mg/m3) occurred before 1970. "In the early 1970s, the exposure started to decline due to the use of lower concentrations of the acids and improved industrial control measures." [Reference #1]

Reference Link

IARC 2012: Mists from Strong Inorganic Acids

Exposure Assessment
Adverse Effects
IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information


Related Information in HazMap

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:


Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: