Agent Name

Gadolinium

CAS Number

7440-54-2

Formula

Gd

Major Category

Metals

Synonyms

UN1383 (Pyroporic metal); [MSDSonline]

Category

Rare Earth Metals

Description

Silvery white, malleable metal that tarnishes in moist air; [Reference #2]

Sources/Uses

Used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors; Natural isotopes include Gd-152 (radioactive); the remaining six isotopes are stable and comprise 99.8% of naturally occurring gadolinium; Mineral sources are samarskite, gadolinite (ytterbite), and xenotime; [Merck Index] Used in electronic applications (gadolinium yttrium garnets and phosphors), metallurgy (iron and chromium alloys), and as a contrast agent for MRI (magnetic resonance imaging); [Wikipedia] Used in high-temperature alloys and in electronic components; [Britannica]

Comments

In contact with water, gadolinium powder releases flammable hydrogen; [MSDSonline] Used in MRI contrast agents, gadolinium has been linked to Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis or Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy (NSF/NFD). "The 25 cases of NSF/NFD were reported on May 29, 2006, by the Danish Medicines Agency. Among these, 20 cases occurred in Denmark and five cases occurred in Austria. The patients developed NSF/SFD within 3 months (range 2 weeks to 3 months) after receiving the gadolinium-containing contrast agent." [Reference #1] See "RARE EARTH METALS" and linked occupational diseases.

Reference Link

FDA Public Health Advisory: Gadolinium-containing Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Omniscan, OptiMARK, Magnevist, ProHance, and MultiHance

Exposure Assessment
Explanatory Notes

Melting point = 1312 degrees C. [Sax]

Reference Link

LANL: Gadolinium

Adverse Effects
Fibrogenic

Yes

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: