Agent Name

Acetic acid

CAS Number

64-19-7

Formula

C2-H4-O2

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Acetasol; Acetic acid; Acetic acid (natural); Acetic acid, glacial; Aci-Jel; Acide acetique [French]; Acido acetico [Italian]; Azijnzuur [Dutch]; Essigsaeure [German]; Ethanoic acid; Ethanoic acid monomer; Ethylic acid; Glacial acetic acid; Kyselina octova [Czech]; Methanecarboxylic acid; Octowy kwas [Polish]; Pyroligneous acid; Vinegar acid; [ChemIDplus] UN2789 UN2790

Category

Organic Acids

Description

Colorless liquid or crystals with a sour, vinegar-like odor; Note: Pure compound is a solid below 62 degrees F. Often used in an aqueous solution; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used to manufacture acetic anhydride and other organic chemicals used in the plastic, pharmaceutical, dye, insecticide, textile, rubber, and photographic industries; [ACGIH] Used in photography (stop bath); [www.ci.tucson.az.us/arthazards/medium.html] Used as a wet etchant in semiconductor manufacturing at standard concentrations of 36% or 99.5%; [CSH, p. 46] Used in the bating and tanning stages of leather production; [PMID 21938525]

Comments

Liquid causes second degree burns after contact for a few minutes; [CHRIS] Highly corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] Glacial refers to "a number of acids, e.g., acetic and phosphoric, which have a freezing point slightly below room temperature when in a highly pure state. For example, glacial acetic acid is 99.8% pure and crystallizes at 16.6 C." [Hawley] Household vinegar is usually a 5% solution. Use skin protection if >10% solution of acetic acid. The vapor can cause lacrimation. [HSDB] A case of RADS and a case of asthma caused by glacial acetic acid have been reported in the medical literature. [Rajan, 1989; Kivity, 1994] Pulmonary edema may result from inhalation of high concentrations. [NJ-HSFS]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

10 ppm

STEL (ACGIH)

15 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

10 ppm

MAK

10 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

50 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Marked irritation of the eyes, nose, and upper respiratory tract which could not be tolerated for more than 3 minutes was noted at 816 to 1,226 ppm [von Oettingen 1960]. It has been reported that 50 ppm or more is intolerable to most persons due to intense lacrimation and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat [AIHA]. It has also been stated that repeated exposures to high concentrations may produce respiratory tract irritation with pharyngeal edema and chronic bronchitis [AIHA 1972].

Vapor Pressure

15.7 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.03 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.15 ppm

RD50

163 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (mice) = 5,620 ppm/1 hr

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.074 ppm); The Guide from the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "acetic acid, glacial." Flash point = 39 deg C;

Reference Link

ICSC: Acetic acid

Flammability (NFPA)

2: High ambient temperature required

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Asthma

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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