Agent Name

Acetic anhydride

CAS Number

108-24-7

Formula

C4-H6-O3

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Acetic acid anhydride, Acetic oxide, Acetyl oxide, Ethanoic anhydride

Category

Acid Anhydrides, Other

Description

Colorless liquid with a strong, pungent, vinegar-like odor;

Sources/Uses

Used to manufacture cellulose acetate fibers, plastics, pharmaceuticals, dyes, perfumes, explosives, and food starches; [ACGIH]

Comments

Evidence of skin sensitization in a guinea pig study, but insufficient data to recommend SEN notation; Workers exposed to >5 ppm have immediate eye and respiratory irritation; [ACGIH] Liquid causes second degree burns after contact for a few minutes. [CHRIS] Corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] Inhalation of high concentrations can cause bronchospasm and pulmonary edema. [NIOSH Guidelines for Chemical Hazards] A lachrymator; [CHEMINFO]

Reference Link

NIOSH Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards: Acetic anhydride

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

1 ppm

Ceiling (ACGIH)

3 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

5 ppm

MAK

5 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

200 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH. . According to AIHA [1971], all rats exposed for 4 hours to 2,000 ppm were dead within 14 days while all rats exposed for 4 hours to 1,000 ppm survived the 14-day observation period [Capellini and Sartorelli 1967]. Because 2,000 ppm is obviously too high to be selected as the IDLH, 1,000 ppm has been chosen. . . . Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for acetic anhydride is 200 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Deichmann and Gerarde 1969]. This may be a conservative value due to the lack of relevant acute toxicity data for workers.

Vapor Pressure

4 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.12 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.36 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 1,000 ppm/4H

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean <0.14 ppm);

Reference Link

ICSC: Acetic anhydride

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Other Information

No other related information on this agent was found.