Agent Name

Lindane

Alternative Name

gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane

CAS Number

58-89-9

Formula

C6-H6-Cl6

Major Category

Pesticides

Synonyms

gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane; Kwell (mixture); 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer; Aalindan; Aficide; Agrocide; Agrocide 6G; Agrocide 7; Agrocide III; Agrocide WP; Agronexit; Ameisenmittel merck; Ameisentod; Aparasin; Aphtiria; Aplidal; Arbitex; Arcotal S; BBH; BHC (insecticide); Ben-Hex; Benhexol; Bentox 10; Benzene hexachloride (Ambiguous); Benzene hexachloride-gamma isomer; Benzene-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloride ((Ambiguous); Bexol; Caswell No. 527; Celanex; Chloresene; Codechine; Cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, gamma-; Cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachloro-, gamma-isomer; Detmol Extract; Detox 25; Devoran; Dol Granule; Drilltox-Spezial Aglukon; Entomoxan; Fenoform forte; Forst-Nexen; Gallogama; Gamacarbatox; Gamacid; Gamacide; Gamacide 20; Gamaphex; Gamene; Gamiso; Gamma-mean 400; Gammalin; Gammalin 20; Gammaterr; Geobilan; Geolin G 3; Gexane; H.C.H.; HCCH; HCH; HCH [BSI]; HEXA; HGI; Heclotox; Hexachloran; Hexachlorane; Hexachlorocyclohexane; Hexachlorocyclohexane, gamma-isomer; Hexaverm; Hexcidum; Hexicide; Hexyclan; Hilbeech; Hortex; Hungaria L7; Inexit; Jacutin; Kokotine; Kwell; Lacco HI lin; Lasochron; Latka 666; Latka 666 [Czech]; Lendine; Lentox; Lidenal; Lindafor; Lindagam; Lindagrain; Lindagranox; Lindane; Lindano; Lindano [INN-Spanish]; Lindanum; Lindanum [INN-Latin]; Lindapoudre; Lindatox; Lindex; Lindosep; Lintox; Linvur; Lorexane; Mglawik L; Milbol 49; Mszycol; Neo-Scabicidol; Nexen FB; Nexit; Nexit-stark; Nexol-E; Nicochloran; Novigam; Omnitox; Ovadziak; Owadziak; PLK; Pedraczak; Pflanzol; Quellada; Sang gamma; Scabene; Silvanol; Spritz-Rapidin; Spritzlindane; Spruehpflanzol; Streunex; TAP 85; Tri-6; Verindal Ultra; Viton; gamma Benzene hexachloride; gamma-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachlorocyclohexane; gamma-Benzenehexachloride; gamma-Benzohexachloride; gamma-HCH; gamma-Hexachlorcyclohexanum; gamma-Hexachlorobenzene; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Organochlorine Pesticides

Description

White to yellow, crystalline powder with a slight, musty odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a scabicide/pesticide in humans and animals. [ACGIH] Was used as an insecticide on fruits, vegetables, tobacco, and forest crops; still used to treat head and body lice and scabies; [ATSDRToxFAQs]

Comments

There are several stereoisomers of technical hexachlorocyclohexane; Only the gamma isomer is insecticidal. [EPA Pesticides, p. 55] Lindane contains >99% of the gamma isomer. [ATSDRToxProfiles] Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis have been reported in patients chronically poisoned by lindane vapor from electrical vaporizers. [ACGIH] High-dose animal studies show that organochlorine insecticides can cause liver injury. [LaDou, p. 593] Allergic contact dermatitis reported in farmers; [Kanerva, p. 1808] "Epidemiological cohort and case-control studies of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several countries provided sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of lindane. The US Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort study with detailed exposure assessment, reported statistically significant increases in non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk with increasing occupational exposure to lindane. Population-based case-control studies in the mid-western USA and Canada also reported consistently positive associations." [http://www.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lanonc/PIIS1470-2045(15)00081-9.pdf] "After thoroughly reviewing the latest available scientific literature, a Working Group of 26 experts from 13 countries convened by the IARC Monographs Programme classified the insecticide lindane as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). There was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of lindane for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)." [IARC Press Release 23 June 2015]

Restricted

Use as indoor smoke fumigant canceled in 1986; Use on agricultural crops and in dairy industry cancelled by EPA. [ACGIH] Not produced in the US since 1977; [ATSDR ToxFAQs]

Reference Link

EXTOXNET PIP - LINDANE

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

Bioaccumulates

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.5 mg/m3

PEL (OSHA)

0.5 mg/m3

MAK

0.1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction

IDLH (NIOSH)

50 mg/m3

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: An oral dose of 150 mg/kg has been associated with grandmal seizures [Starr and Clifford 1972]. [Note: An oral dose of 150 mg/kg is equivalent to a 70kg worker being exposed to 7,000 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.] It has also been stated that 7 to 15 grams is the dangerous acute dose [CDC 1956]. [Note: An oral dose of 7 to 15 grams is equivalent to a worker being exposed to 4,667 to 10,000 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]

Vapor Pressure

1.0E-5 mm Hg

Half Life

Gamma-HCH (Lindane) is rapidly metabolized; beta-HCH has been detected in serum 10-15 years after exposure; [TDR, p. 753]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Hexachlorocyclohexane

Adverse Effects
Anemia

Anemia, Aplastic

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Other Poison

Organochlorine Pesticide

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: