Agent Name


CAS Number




Major Category



((Dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)butanedioic acid diethyl ester; AC 26691; American cyanamid 4,049; Butanedioic acid, ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)-thio)-, diethyl ester, (+-)-; Butanedioic acid, ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)-, diethyl ester; Camathion; Carbethoxy malathion; Carbetovur; Carbetox; Carbofos; Carbophos; Chemathion; Cimexan; Compound 4049; Cythion; Detmol MA; Dicarboethoxyethyl O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; Diethyl ((dimethoxyphosphinothioyl)thio)butanedioate; Diethyl (+-)-mercaptosuccinate, S-ester with O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; Diethyl (dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio)succinate; Diethyl mercaptosuccinate S-ester with O,O-dimethylphosphorodithioate; Diethyl mercaptosuccinate, O,O-dimethyl dithiophosphate, S-ester; Diethyl(dimethoxythiophosphorylthio)succinate; Dithiophosphate de O,O-dimethyle et de S-(1,2-dicarboethoxyethyle) [French]; Dorthion; EL 4049; Emmatos Extra; Ethiolacar; Etiol; Extermathion; Flair; Forthion; Fosfothion; Fosfotion; Fosfotion 550; Fyfanon; Hilthion; IFO 13140; Insecticide No. 4049; Karbofos; Kill-A-Mite; Kop-thion; Kypfos; Latka 4049 [Czech]; Malacide; Malafor; Malagran; Malakill; Malamar; Malamar 50; Malaphos; Malasol; Malaspray; Malataf; Malathiazol; Malathion E50; Malathion LV concentrate; Malathon; Malathyl; Malation [Polish]; Malatol; Malatox; Maldison; Malmed; Malphos; Mercaptosuccinic acid diethyl ester; Mercaptothion; Mercaptotion [Spanish]; Moscarda; O,O-Dimethyl S-(1,2-bis(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl) dithiophosphate; O,O-Dimethyl S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl) dithiophosphate; O,O-Dimethyl S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)phosphorodithioate; O,O-Dimethyl S-1,2-di(ethoxycarbamyl)ethyl phosphorodithioate; O,O-Dimethyl-S-1,2-(dicarbaethoxyaethyl)-dithiophosphat [German]; O,O-Dimethyl-S-1,2-dikarbetoxylethylditiofosfat [Czech]; O,O-Dimethyldithiophosphate diethylmercaptosuccinate; O,O-Dwumetylo-S-1,2-bis(karboetoksyetylo)-dwutiofosforan [Polish]; Oleophosphothion; Ortho malathion; Ovide; Paladin; Phosphorodithioic acid, O,O-dimethyl ester, S-ester with diethyl mercaptosuccinate; Phosphothion; Prioderm; S-(1,2-Bis(aethoxy-carbonyl)-aethyl)-O,O-dimethyl-dithiophosphat [German]; S-(1,2-Bis(carbethoxy)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl dithiophosphate; S-(1,2-Bis(ethoxy-carbonyl)-ethyl)-O,O-dimethyl-dithiofosfaat [Dutch]; S-(1,2-Bis(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl) O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; S-(1,2-Bis(etossi-carbonil)-etil)-O,O-dimetil-ditiofosfato [Italian]; S-(1,2-Di(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl) dimethyl phosphorothiolothionate; S-(1,2-Dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethyldithiophosphate; S-(1,2-Dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethylphosphorodithioate; S-1,2-Bis(ethoxycarbonyl)ethyl-O,O-dimethyl thiophosphate; SF 60; Sadofos; Sadophos; Siptox I; Succinic acid, mercapto-, diethyl ester, S-ester with O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate; Sumitox; TAK; TM-4049; Taskil; [ChemIDplus]


Organophosphate Insecticides


Deep-brown to yellow liquid with a garlic-like odor. [insecticide]; [NIOSH]


Used on fruits and vegetables, and to control mosquitoes, flies, and animal parasites; Malthion is often used in mixtures with other pesticides. [EXTOXNET]


Malathion is one of the less potent organophosphate insecticides. It has an oral LD50 of 500-1000 mg/kg compared to an LD50 of 1-5 mg/kg for parathion. [LaDou, p. 584] Allergic contact dermatitis has been reported in farmers. [Kanerva, p. 1808] "Inhalation is not a significant route of exposure to malathion at ordinary temperatures because of its low volatility, but toxic effects can occur after inhalation of malathion sprays or dusts." [ATSDR Medical Management]

Reference Link


Exposure Assessment

Cholinesterase activity in red cells = 70% of individual's baseline, sample time discretionary; [ACGIH]

Skin Designation (ACGIH)



1 mg/m3, inhalable fraction and vapor


15 mg/m3, total dust


15 mg/m3, inhalable fraction


250 mg/m3

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: Workers exposed to initial concentrations up to 85 mg/m3 for 1 hour (that may have declined rapidly) over 42 consecutive days suffered no adverse effects [Golz 1959]. Workers exposed to concentrations that peaked at 56 mg/m3 and averaged 3.3 mg/m3 for 5 hours had normal cholinesterase levels [Culver et al. 1956]. A lethal oral dose of 246 to 471 mg/kg has been reported [Farago 1967; Jusic and Milic 1978]. [Note: An oral dose of 246 to 471 mg/kg is equivalent to a 70kg worker being exposed to about 11,500 to 22,100 mg/m3 for 30 minutes, assuming a breathing rate of 50 liters per minute and 100% absorption.]

Vapor Pressure

4.0E-5 mm Hg

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Malathion

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer


Other Poison


IARC Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information


Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:


Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: