Agent Name

Biphenyl

Alternative Name

Diphenyl

CAS Number

92-52-4

Formula

C12-H10

Major Category

Other Classes

Synonyms

Phenylbenzene, 1,1'-Biphenyl; Diphenyl; [CHEMINFO]

Category

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Description

Colorless to pale-yellow solid with a pleasant, characteristic odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used as a heat transfer fluid, intermediate for organic chemicals, and fungicide; [ACGIH] Also used as a dye carrier and a mold retardant in food; Low levels present in creosote and coal tar; [CHEMINFO]

Comments

After one worker died, studies in a Finnish paper mill showed air levels of 4.4 to 128 mg/m3 in 1959 and 0.6 to 123 mg/m3 in 1970. Nine case of poisoning were investigated and summarized as "central and peripheral nerve damage and liver injury." [ACGIH] Causes convulsions and paralysis in high-dose animal studies; [CAMEO]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

0.2 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.2 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

15.86 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that one fatal case of liver necrosis with some areas of cirrhosis occurred in a worker who had been regularly exposed to vapor concentrations of approximately 100 mg/m3 [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Other workers with repeated exposure to concentrations greater than 5 mg/m3 had gastrointestinal symptoms as well as polyneuritic complaints, with abnormalities of both the electroencephalogram and electromyogram [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Some workers showed hepatic damage detected by liver function tests and biopsy [Hakkinen et al. 1973]. Workers exposed to concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 128 mg/m3 complained of the strong odor and irritation of the throat and eyes [Hakkinen et al. 1973].

Vapor Pressure

0.005 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.01 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.05 ppm

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHEMINFO; Flash point = 235 deg F; [CHEMINFO] IDLH = 100 mg/m3 (15.86 ppm);

Flammability (NFPA)

1: Must be preheated

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Primary

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: