Agent Name

Bromine

CAS Number

7726-95-6

Formula

Br2

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Molecular bromine; Brome; [CHEMINFO] UN1744

Category

Other Toxic Gases & Vapors

Description

Dark reddish-brown, fuming liquid with suffocating, irritating fumes; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Used for bleaching, disinfecting, and manufacturing ethylene dibromide and other organic chemical products (fire extinguishers, analytical and photographic reagents, fire-retardant plastics, dyes, and drugs); [ACGIH] Used to disinfect water and bleach textiles; [Merck Index] Used in photography as a holography bleach; [www.ci.tucson.az.us/arthazards/medium.html]

Comments

Liquid causes second or third degree burns after short contact; [CHRIS] Highly corrosive to skin; [Quick CPC] Listed as one of "major irritant airborne toxicants"; [LaDou, p. 563] A lachrymator; [HSDB] Causes lachrymation; A corrosive substance that can cause pulmonary edema; [ICSC] Bromide compounds have been used since the 19th century as sedatives and anticonvulsants. Because of the risk of chronic bromide poisoning (bromism), bromide salts were removed from most pharmaceuticals in the US by 1978. The findings of bromism include neuropsychiatric symptoms and acne. [Ford, p. 559] The bromide ion has a long half-life so that bioaccumulation and delayed toxicity may be observed. [Goldfrank, p. 1066] When spilled in water Bromine trifluoride and Bromine pentafluoride can release HF and Bromine. [ERG 2016] See the Process, "Toxic Gas from Spilling Chemical in Water."

Reference Link

EPA Pesticide Chemical Search

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm

STEL (ACGIH)

0.2 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

3 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that 10 ppm and above cause such severe upper respiratory irritation that exposures will not be voluntarily borne [MCA 1968]. Also, it has been reported that 0.75 ppm caused no symptoms in 6 hours [Flury and Zernik 1931]. Further, 4 ppm has been recommended as the maximum concentration allowable for 0.5 to 1 hour, with 40 to 60 ppm dangerous for brief exposures [Henderson and Haggard 1943]. It has also been stated that respiratory damage occurs at 10 ppm [NFPA 1978]. It has been reported that 1.7 to 3.5 ppm produces severe choking, 4.5 to 9 ppm is extremely dangerous, and 30 ppm would prove fatal in a short time [ILO 1971].

Vapor Pressure

172 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.0099 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.46 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (mice) = 750 ppm/9 min

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from AIHA (<0.0099-0.46 ppm);

Reference Link

ICSC: Bromine

Adverse Effects
Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Neurotoxin

Other CNS Neurotoxin

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: