Agent Name

1,3-Butadiene

Alternative Name

Butadiene

CAS Number

106-99-0

Formula

C4-H6

Major Category

Plastics & Rubber

Synonyms

Biethylene; Bivinyl; Buta-1,3-dieen [Dutch]; Buta-1,3-dien [German]; Buta-1,3-diene; Butadieen [Dutch]; Butadien [Polish]; Butadiene monomer; Butadiene-1,3-uninhibited; Divinyl; Erythrene; UN 1010; Vinylethylene; alpha,gamma-Butadiene; [ChemIDplus] UN1010

Category

Other Monomers

Description

Colorless gas with a mild aromatic or gasoline-like odor. [Note: A liquid below 24 degrees F. Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas.] Vapor density = 1.87 (heavier than air); [HSDB]

Sources/Uses

Used in the production of synthetic rubber for motor vehicle tires; also used in styrene-butadiene polymers, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins, and other compounds; [ACGIH]

Comments

Synthetic rubber workers in the past had increased incidence of leukemia attributed to chronic and heavy exposure to 1,3-butadiene. Acutely, it is not very toxic. [Lewis R. "Overview of the Rubber Industry and Tire Manufacturing." in Occupational Medicine STAR 14(4): 710, 1999.] In reproductive studies of mice, 1,3-butadiene causes testicular damage. Some animal studies found birth defects after high doses during early pregnancy. [Frazier, p. 277-8] Causes CNS depression at high concentrations; May have effects on the bone marrow; [ICSC] "Germ cell mutagens that have shown to increase the mutant frequency in the progeny of exposed mammals." [MAK] There is sufficient evidence that 1,3-butadiene causes cancer of haematolymphatic organs in studies of styrene-butadiene rubber and butadiene-monomer workers. [IARC Monograph Volume 100F (2012)]

Restricted

See Occupational Safety & Health Standard--29CFR1910.1051

Reference Link

OSHA Technical Links: 1,3-butadiene

Exposure Assessment
BEI

1,2 Dihydroxy-4-(N-acetylcysteinyl)-butane in urine = 2.5 mg/L at end of shift; Mixture of N-1 and N-2-(hydroxybutenyl)valine hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in blood = 2.5 pmol/g Hb sampling time not critical;

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

PEL (OSHA)

1 mg/m3, STEL(OSHA) = 5 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Other animal data: Exposures to 6,700 ppm for 7.5 hours/day, 6 days/week for 8 months caused no progressive injury in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, or 1 dog [Carpenter et al. 1944]. Human data: Narcosis did not occur in volunteers exposed to 8,000 ppm for 8 hours [Carpenter et al. 1944]. Exposure to 10,000 ppm for 5 minutes has resulted in slight irritation and dryness of the nose and mouth with some increase in pulse rate but no effect on blood pressure or respiration [Shugaev 1968].

Odor Threshold Low

0.09 ppm

Odor Threshold High

76 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 285,000 mg/m3/4H

Explanatory Notes

IDLH = 10% LEL (lower explosive limit); Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.45 ppm); Flash point = -105 deg F;

Half Life

No reports found; [TDR, p. 224]

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - 1,3-Butadiene

Flammability (NFPA)

4: Burns readily

Adverse Effects
Reproductive Toxin

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Suspected Human

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure:

Activities

Activities with risk of exposure: