Agent Name

CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES

Alternative Name

CLASS

Major Category

Pesticides

Synonyms

CLASSES

Category

Carbamate Insecticides

Comments

Carbamate insecticides are a group of chemicals similar to the organophosphate insecticides. For both carbamates and organophosphates, toxicity is due to excessive cholinergic stimulation as the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, accumulates at nerve endings in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Poisoning results in M--miosis, U--urination, D--diarrhea, D--diaphoresis, L--lacrimation, E--excitation and S--salivation. Carbamates and organophosphates poison by chemically combining with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme to inactivate it. The carbamates are less toxic than the organophosphates because carbamates reversibly bind with the enzyme as opposed to the permanent binding and inactivation by the organophosphates. This limits the duration of carbamate insecticide poisoning. Blood cholinesterase levels are not usually helpful in diagnosing or monitoring cases of carbamate poisoning because levels will return to normal within an hour or two in both the body and the test tube. [EPA Pesticides, p. 48-9] Carbamate insecticides include N-methyl carbamates and dimethyl carbamates. [Krieger, p. 1591]

Exposure Assessment
Half Life

No specific reports, but thought to be completely eliminated within a few days; [TDR, p. 250] Half-lives in the field range from days to months; [ATSDR Case Studies # 22]

Adverse Effects
Other Poison

Carbamate

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Toxicity Information

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Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: