Agent Name

Chlorine dioxide

CAS Number

10049-04-4

Formula

Cl-O2

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Alcide; Anthium dioxcide; Chlorine dioxide; Chlorine oxide (ClO2); Chlorine peroxide; Chlorine(IV) oxide; Chloroperoxyl; Chloryl radical; Doxcide 50; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Oxidizers

Description

Yellow to red gas or a red-brown liquid (below 52 degrees F) with an unpleasant odor similar to chlorine and nitric acid; [NIOSH] Vapor density = 2.3 (heavier than air); [ACGIH]

Sources/Uses

Used in bleaching wood pulp (95% of use); Also used in bleaching textiles; disinfectiing hospital equipment; disinfecting fruits, vegetables, and meats; and treating municipal water; [ACGIH]

Comments

Corrosive--can cause serious skin burns; [ICSC] Rats exposed to 0.1 ppm for 5 hours/day for 45 days had no adverse effects while exposures to 2.5 ppm for 7 hours/day for 30 days caused severe lung inflammation; [ACGIH]

Reference Link

EPA Pesticide Chemical Search

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TIH

Yes

Dangerous When Wet

Yes - A material that, by contact with water, is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material, per hour; [ERG 2004]

Ceiling (ACGIH)

0.1 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.1 ppm

MAK

0.1 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

5 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Human data: It has been reported that 5 ppm is definitely irritating and that 19 ppm caused the death of one worker inside a tank (time of exposure was not specified) [Elkins 1950].

Odor Threshold Low

0.1 ppm

Odor Threshold High

15 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 260 ppm/2H

Explanatory Notes

Extreme explosive hazard--should be handled in aqueous solutions (0.5-10 g/L); [ACGIH] Odor threshold from NJ "Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet"; The Guide from the Emergency Response Guidebook is for "Chlorine dioxide, hydrate, frozen.

Reference Link

ICSC: Chlorine dioxide

Adverse Effects
Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: