Agent Name

alpha-Chloroacetophenone

Alternative Name

Phenacyl chloride

CAS Number

532-27-4

Formula

C8-H7-Cl-O

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Phenacyl chloride; Tear gas; 1-Chloroacetophenone; 2-Chloro-1-phenylethanone; 2-Chloroacetophenone; Acetophenone, 2-chloro-; CN; CN (lacrimator); Chemical mace; Chloromethyl phenyl ketone; Ethanone, 2-chloro-1-phenyl-; Mace (lacrimator); Phenacyl chloride; Phenacylchloride; Phenylchloromethylketone; alpha-Chloroacetophenone; [ChemIDplus] UN1697

Category

Tear Gas Agents

Description

Colorless to gray crystalline solid with a sharp, irritating odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

A lacrimator (tear gas) agent; [ACGIH]

Comments

Alpha-chloroacetophenone can cause allergic contact dermatitis with cross-reactions to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile. [ACGIH] A lachrymator; [HSDB] "With extremely high inhalational exposures, lower respiratory injury is possible." [Olson, p. 680] May cause respiratory tract irritation and pulmonary edema; [ICSC]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

0.05 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.05 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: ACGIH [1971] reported that the effective concentration to produce casualties as estimated from volunteer exposure is greater than 100 mg/m3. Deichmann and Gerarde [1969] reported that a fatality followed an exposure of less than 20 minutes to high concentrations of vapor (5.4 grams in a 34 m3 room, which is roughly equivalent to 160 mg/m3). Based on the data cited above, an IDLH of 100 mg/m3 is chosen.. . . . Other human data: It has been reported that 31 mg/m3 is intolerable after 3 minutes [Punte et al. 1962].

Vapor Pressure

0.005 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.01 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 417 mg/m3/15 min

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from NJ "Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet"; Flash point = 244 deg F;

Reference Link

ICSC: 2-Chloroacetophone

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: