Agent Name

alpha-Chloroacetophenone

Alternative Name

Phenacyl chloride

CAS Number

532-27-4

Formula

C8-H7-Cl-O

Major Category

Toxic Gases & Vapors

Synonyms

Phenacyl chloride; Tear gas; 1-Chloroacetophenone; 2-Chloro-1-phenylethanone; 2-Chloroacetophenone; Acetophenone, 2-chloro-; CN; CN (lacrimator); Chemical mace; Chloromethyl phenyl ketone; Ethanone, 2-chloro-1-phenyl-; Mace (lacrimator); Phenacyl chloride; Phenacylchloride; Phenylchloromethylketone; alpha-Chloroacetophenone; [ChemIDplus] UN1697

Category

Tear Gas Agents

Description

Colorless to gray crystalline solid with a sharp, irritating odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

A lacrimator (tear gas) agent; [ACGIH]

Comments

Alpha-chloroacetophenone can cause allergic contact dermatitis with cross-reactions to o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile. [ACGIH] A lachrymator; [HSDB] "With extremely high inhalational exposures, lower respiratory injury is possible." [Olson, p. 603] May cause respiratory tract irritation and pulmonary edema; [ICSC]

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

0.05 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

0.05 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for original (SCP) IDLH: ACGIH [1971] reported that the effective concentration to produce casualties as estimated from volunteer exposure is greater than 100 mg/m3. Deichmann and Gerarde [1969] reported that a fatality followed an exposure of less than 20 minutes to high concentrations of vapor (5.4 grams in a 34 m3 room, which is roughly equivalent to 160 mg/m3). Based on the data cited above, an IDLH of 100 mg/m3 is chosen.. . . . Other human data: It has been reported that 31 mg/m3 is intolerable after 3 minutes [Punte et al. 1962].

Vapor Pressure

0.005 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.01 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 417 mg/m3/15 min

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from NJ "Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet"; Flash point = 244 deg F;

Reference Link

ICSC: 2-Chloroacetophone

Flammability (NFPA)

1: Must be preheated

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Lacrimator

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent: