Agent Name

Alloxan

CAS Number

50-71-5

Formula

C4-H2-N2-O4

Major Category

Nitrogen Compounds

Synonyms

2,4,5,6(1H,3H)-Pyrimidinetetrone; 2,4,5,6-Pyrimidintetron [Czech]; 2,4,5,6-Tetraoxohexahydropyrimidine; Alloxan 7169; Alloxane; Barbituric acid, 5-oxo-; Mesoxalylcarbamide; Mesoxalylurea; Urea, mesoxalyl-; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Pyrimidines

Description

Solid; [Merck Index] Tetrahydrate: White solid; [Reidel-de Haen MSDS]

Sources/Uses

Used in organic synthesis and to induce diabetes in experimental animals; [Merck Index] Used in cosmetics; [Hawley]

Comments

Intraperitoneal injection in pregnant rats at day of fertilization causes rare incidence of hyperglycemia and low frequency of malformations at 80 to 100 mg/kg, where doses of 110 to 150 mg/kg cause severe hyperglycemia and maternal or embryonic death; Selectively cytotoxic to pancreatic islet B-cells (human B-cells are resistant to concentrations highly toxic in mice and rats); Emergency treatment: "Vacor"; Vacor destroys pancreatic beta cells; In human poisoning cases after ingestion, Vacor caused orthostatic hypotension, autonomic dysfunction, encephalopathy, peripheral neuropathy, hyperglycemia, and ketoacidosis; Systemic poisoning not reported after inhalation or skin absorption; A dose as low as 19 grams of Vacor may be fatal; [HSDB] Causes diabetes mellitus, effects on fertility, and other changes to retina, blood, brain, and liver in toxic-dose studies of rats (intraperitoneal and intravenous routes); [RTECS] Tetrahydrate: An eye irritant; [Reidel-de Haen MSDS] See "Pyrinuron."

Exposure Assessment
Vapor Pressure

2.14E-10 mm Hg

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