Agent Name

C.I. Direct Black 38

CAS Number

1937-37-7

Formula

C34-H25-N9-O7-S2.2Na

Major Category

Dyes

Synonyms

2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 4-amino-3-((4'-((2,4-diaminophenyl)azo)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl)azo)-5-hydroxy-6-(phenylazo)-, disodium salt; Atul Direct Black E; Ahco Direct Black GX; Airedale Black ED; Aizen Direct Deep Black EH; Aizen Direct Deep Black GH; Aizen Direct Deep Black RH; Amanil Black GL; Amanil Black WD; Apomine Black GK; Apomine Black GX; Atlantic Black BD; Atlantic Black C; Atlantic Black E; Atlantic Black EA; Atlantic Black GAC; Atlantic Black GG; Atlantic Black GXCW; Atlantic Black GXOO; Atlantic Black SD; Azine Deep Black EW; Azocard Black EW; Azomine Black EWO; Belamine Black GX; Bencidal Black E; Benzamil Black E; Benzanil Black E; Benzo Deep Black E; Benzo Leather Black E; Benzoform Black BCN-CF; Black 2EMBL; Black 4EMBL; Brasilamina Black GN; Brilliant Chrome Leather Black H; C.I. 30235; C.I. Direct Black 38, disodium salt; CERN prima 38 [Czech]; CI Direct Black 38; Calcomine Black; Calcomine Black EXL; Carbide Black E; Chloramine Black C; Chloramine Black EC; Chloramine Black ERT; Chloramine Black EX; Chloramine Black EXR; Chloramine Black XO; Chloramine Carbon Black S; Chloramine Carbon Black SJ; Chloramine Carbon Black SN; Chlorazol Black E; Chlorazol Black E (biological stain); Chlorazol Black EA; Chlorazol Black EN; Chlorazol Burl Black E; Chlorazol Leather Black ENP; Chlorazol Silk Black G; Chlorazol Black; Chrome Leather Black E; Chrome Leather Black EC; Chrome Leather Black EM; Chrome Leather Black G; Chrome Leather Brilliant Black ER; Coir Deep Black C; Columbia Black EP; Columbus Black EP; Coranil Direct Black F; Diacotton Deep Black; Diacotton Deep Black RX; Diamine Deep Black EC; Diamine Direct Black E; Diaphtamine Black V; Diazine Black E; Diazine Direct Black E; Diazine Direct Black G; Diazol Black 2V; Diphenyl Deep Black G; Direct Black 3; Direct Black 38; Direct Black 38 (technical grade); Direct Black A; Direct Black CX; Direct Black CXR; Direct Black E; Direct Black EW; Direct Black EX; Direct Black FR; Direct Black GAC; Direct Black GW; Direct Black GX; Direct Black GXR; Direct Black JET; Direct Black Meta; Direct Black Methyl; Direct Black N; Direct Black RX; Direct Black SD; Direct Black WS; Direct Black Z; Direct Deep Black E; Direct Deep Black E Extra; Direct Deep Black EA-CF; Direct Deep Black EAC; Direct Deep Black EW; Direct Deep Black EX; Disodium 4-amino-3-((4'-((2,4-diaminophenyl)azo)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4-azo))-5-hydroxy-6-(phenylazo)naphthalene-2,7-disulphonate; EM 38; Enianil Black CN; Erie Black B; Erie Black BF; Erie Black GAC; Erie Black GXOO; Erie Black JET; Erie Black NUG; Erie Black RXOO; Erie Brilliant Black S; Erie Fibre Black VP; Fenamin Black E; Fibre Black VF; Fixanol Black E; Formaline Black C; Formic Black C; Formic Black CW; Formic Black EA; Formic Black MTG; Formic Black TG; Hispamin Black EF; Interchem Direct Black Z; Kayaku Direct Deep Black EX; Kayaku Direct Deep Black GX; Kayaku Direct Deep Black S; Kayaku Direct Leather Black EX; Kayaku Direct Special Black AAX; Lurazol Black BA; Meta Black; Mitsui Direct Black EX; Mitsui Direct Black GX; Nippon Deep Black; Nippon Deep Black GX; Paper Black BA; Paper Black T; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Benzidine Dyes

Description

Grey-black solid; [HSDB] Black powder; [MSDSonline]

Sources/Uses

Used in dyes (cellulose, wool, silk, nylon, acetate, leather, plastics, plant fiber, and hog's hair), wood stains, biological stains, aqueous inks, and hair dyes; [HSDB] In a NIOSH survey of US industries in 1972-1974, workers were exposed to Direct Black 38, Direct Brown 95, and Direct Blue 6 (benzidine-based dyes) in the textiles, paper, and leather industries; [Zenz, p. 709]

Comments

An eye irritant; [Hawley] One of the azo dyes metabolized to benzidine--known to be a human carcinogen; [NTP] May be absorbed through skin; [CAMEO] An irritant; May cause cancer; Possible reproductive effects; Oral LD50 (rat) = 7600 mg/kg; [MSDSonline] See "Benzidine."

Reference Link

IARC 2012: Dyes Metabolized to Benzidine

Exposure Assessment
Lethal Concentration

LCLo (rat) = 180,000 mg/m3/1h

Adverse Effects
IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Human Carcinogen

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: