Agent Name

Gasoline

CAS Number

86290-81-5

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

Motor fuel; Motor spirits; Natural gasoline; Petrol; [NIOSH] UN1203

Category

Petroleum, Refined

Description

Clear liquid with a characteristic odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Gasoline is a complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics. [NIOSH] U.S. gasoline contains about 1% benzene and about 1% n-hexane. Gasoline additives include organic lead, ethylene dibromide, ethanol, methanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), and tertiary butyl ether (TBE). [ATSDR Case Studies #31]

Comments

TSCA Definition 2008: A mixture of natural gas distillates (mainly saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons) with carbon numbers of C4 to C8 and boiling points of -20 deg C to 120 deg C; [ChemIDplus] Gasoline inhalation exposures to the general public during self-service automobile refueling are not appear a significant health risk--2 minute exposures to approximately 200 ppm gasoline and 1 ppm benzene. (15 min. STELs are 500 ppm and 5 ppm, respectively.) Misuse of gasoline as a solvent or cleaner can cause skin and eye irritation and CNS toxicity after extensive overexposure. [ATSDR Case Studies #31] Gasoline is in the list of "Some volatile substances which may be abused by inhalation" published on the web site of the U.N. International Drug Control Programme, indicating its potential to cause narcosis in workers. [Flanagan et al. Volatile Substance Abuse] Acute tubular necrosis has been reported after heavy and repeated skin exposures to gasoline, turpentine, petroleum naphtha, and diesel oil. [Rosenstock, p. 577] Gasoline C8-C10 causes trivial liver injury in animal studies; No known injury in human cases; [Haddad, p. 226t]

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management - Gasoline

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Insufficient data

TLV (ACGIH)

300 ppm

STEL (ACGIH)

500 ppm

Odor Threshold Low

0.12 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.15 ppm

Explanatory Notes

VP = 400-775 mmHg @ 20 deg C; [CHEMINFO]; Flash point = -36 deg F; Recognition odor thresholds from CHEMINFO;

Half Life

Elimination rates of components, e.g., benzene, vary; [TDR, p. 730]

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - Gasoline, Automotive

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: