Agent Name

Calotoxin

CAS Number

20304-49-8

Formula

C29-H40-O10

Major Category

Biological Agents

Synonyms

5-alpha-Card-20(22)-enolide, 3-beta-((6-deoxy-beta-D-hexopyranos-2-ulos-1-yl)oxy)2-alpha,14-dihydroxy-19-oxo-; Card-20(22)-enolide, 3-((6-deoxy-beta-D-hexopyranos-2-ulos-1-yl)oxy)-2,14-dihydroxy-19-oxo-,(2alpha,3beta,5alpha)-; [ChemIDplus]

Category

Plant Toxins

Sources/Uses

A toxin found in Calotropis procera (milkweed); Toxic to cattle and other animals that feed on milkweed; Sequestered by monarch butterflies and used in defense against predators; [HSDB]

Comments

Emergency treatment: "Plants- cardiac glycosides"; [HSDB] Intravenous LD50 (cat) = 112 ug/kg; [RTECS] In animals poisoned by milkweed, causes muscular weakness, respiratory paralysis, intestinal stasis, and coma; Pathological evidence that it damages the liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, brain, and intestines; [HSDB] Milkweed (Asclepias spp) contains cardiac glycosides; [Olson, p. 344] Milkweed (Asclepias spp) contains cardenolides that are cardiac toxins; [Goldfrank, p. 1538] See "Calotropin."

Adverse Effects
Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Secondary

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