Agent Name

Propylene dichloride

Alternative Name

1,2-Dichloropropane

CAS Number

78-87-5

Formula

C3-H6-Cl2

Major Category

Solvents

Synonyms

1,2-Dichloropropane; Bichlorure de propylene [French]; Dichloro-1,2 propane [ISO-French]; Dwuchloropropan [Polish]; alpha,beta-Dichloropropane; alpha,beta-Propylene dichloride; [ChemIDplus] UN1279

Category

Chlorinated Aliphatics

Description

Colorless liquid with a chloroform-like odor. [pesticide]; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Propylene dichloride is used as a solvent for many different purposes. [ACGIH] Used as a solvent in plastics, resins, fats & oils, metal degreasing, rubber processing, and dry cleaning; Used in past as a soil fumigant; [HSDB] "Production of 1,2-dichloropropane in the USA decreased in the early 1980s since it was no longer used in paint strippers, furniture finishes, or as an insecticide." [IARC]

Comments

Acute inhalation studies of rats: respiratory injury, anesthesia and hepatic necrosis; In occupational exposure, the liver and kidneys are the target organs. A dermal sensitizer; [ACGIH] In high-dose reproductive studies of male rats, 1,2-dichloropropane causes testicular damage. [Frazier, p. 248-9] Propylene dichloride is in the list of "Some volatile substances which may be abused by inhalation" published on the web site of the U.N. International Drug Control Programme, indicating its potential to cause narcosis in workers. [Reference #1] A skin, eye, and respiratory tract irritant; Inhalation of high concentrations can cause CNS depression; May cause kidney and liver injury; [ICSC] "There is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of 1,2-dichloropropane. 1,2-Dichloropropane causes cancer of the biliary tract (confirmed as cholangiocarcinoma). . . . However, a minority of the Working Group concluded that the association between 1,2-dichloropropane and cancer of the biliary tract was credible, but the role of exposure to other agents, principally dichloromethane, could not be separated with complete confidence, and noted that most of the evidence came from studies in a single plant." [IARC 2016]

Restricted

No longer available for agricultural use (insecticide and soil fumigant) and no longer available to consumers in paint strippers, varnish, and furniture finish; [ACGIH]

Reference Link

Volatile Substance Abuse

Exposure Assessment
Skin Designation (ACGIH)

No

TLV (ACGIH)

10 ppm

PEL (OSHA)

75 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

400 ppm

Vapor Pressure

53.3 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.26 ppm

Odor Threshold High

0.52 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 3000 ppm/8H

Explanatory Notes

Detection odor threshold from AIHA (mean = 0.26 ppm); Flash point = 16 deg C;

Reference Link

ATSDR - ToxFAQs - 1,2-Dichloropropane

Flammability (NFPA)

3: May ignite at ambient temperature

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Neurotoxin

CNS Solvent Syndrome

Hepatotoxin

Hepatotoxin, Primary

Nephrotoxin

Yes

Reproductive Toxin

Yes

IARC Carcinogen

Known Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Not Classifiable

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

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Chemical Information

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Biomedical References

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Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: