Infection, Occupational




Monkey pox virus; Monkeypoxvirus

Biomedical References

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INITIAL SYMPTOMS: Rash, fever, and lymphadenopathy; In April, May, and June of 2003, 87 cases of monkeypox were reported in the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Mildly ill in most cases, the majority of patients had direct contact with infected prairie dogs. The prairie dogs were purchased at the same wholesale pet store that had housed sick exotic African rodents. Common symptoms included rash, fever, and cough. The animal investigation traced the infection back to Gambian giant rats imported from Ghana where monkeypox is endemic. [MMWR. 7/11/03] Small, sporadic outbreaks of monkeypox have been reported in villages in the rainforests of Central and West Africa. Humans, squirrels, and primates appear to be reservoirs. Humans develop disease after contact with infected animals or humans. Serial transmission in humans occurs, but does not usually go beyond secondary cases. The secondary attack rate is about 8%. The illness resembles smallpox or chickenpox, but lymphadenopathy is more prominent. Case fatality rate was estimated at 1-14% in children not vaccinated against smallpox. [CCDM, p. 565-6] Unlike smallpox, monkeypox causes lymphadenopathy (submandibular or cervical and less often axillary or inguinal) in up to 83% of unvaccinated patients. Pneumonia is a complication. [Guerrant, p. 371] Encephalitis is rare. [PPID, p. 1153] Some patients have "upper respiratory tract lymphadenitis with dysphagia and airway compromise." [PPID, p. 1700] The rash evolves synchronously and involves the palms and soles. [Guerrant, p. 371]


About 12 days; [Harrison ID]


See http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/monkeypox/diagspecimens.htm. Skin biopsy; Paired sera; Serum IgM; [PPID, p. 1153]

ICD-9 Code


Available Vaccine


Reference Link

CDC: Monkeypox


CDC: Monkeypox

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