Agent Name

Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate

Alternative Name

2,4-TDI

CAS Number

584-84-9

Formula

C9-H6-N2-O2

Major Category

Plastics & Rubber

Synonyms

TDI; 2,4-Diisocyanato-1-methylbenzene; 2,4-Diisocyanatotoluene; 2,4-TDI; 2,4-Tolylene diisocyanate; 4-Methyl-m-phenylene diisocyanate; Benzene, 2,4-diisocyanato-1-methyl-; Cresorcinol diisocyanate; Desmodur T80; Di-iso-cyanatoluene; Di-isocyanate de toluylene [French]; Diisocyanat-toluol [German]; Hylene T; Hylene tlc; Isocyanic acid, 4-methyl-m-phenylene ester; Mondur TD; Mondur TD-80; Mondur TDS; Nacconate IOO; TDI; TDI-80; Tolueen-diisocyanaat [Dutch]; Toluen-disocianato [Italian]; Toluene, 2,4-diisocyanato-; Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate; Toluilenodwuizocyjanian [Polish]; Toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate; Tolyene 2,4-diisocyanate; Tolylene diisocyanate; Tolylene-2,4-diisocyanate; Tuluylendiisocyanat [German]; [ChemIDplus] UN2078

Category

Diisocyanates

Description

Colorless to pale-yellow solid or liquid (above 71 degrees F) with a sharp, pungent odor; [NIOSH]

Sources/Uses

Occupational asthma reported in floor varnishers and in workers manufacturing polyurethane foams and elastomers; [Malo]

Comments

Liquid causes second degree burns after contact for a few minutes. [CHRIS] May cause skin sensitization and pulmonary edema; [ICSC] Cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (TDI HP and MDI HP) have been reported. [Rom, p. 388-90] Can cause lacrimation, photophobia, and lid edema; [HSDB] Danger of airway sensitization; [MAK] No major toxicological differences between the various isomers and commercial mixtures of TDI; TLV Basis: asthma; pulmonary function; eye irritation; [ACGIH] See Sennbro CJ, et al. Biological monitoring of exposure to toluene diisocyanate. Scand J Work Environ Health 2004;30(5):371-378] See "DIISOCYANATES."

Reference Link

Occupational asthma due to isocyanates

Exposure Assessment
BEI

Toluene diamine in urine (with hydrolysis) = 5 ug/g creatine at end of shift; [TLVs and BEIs]

Skin Designation (ACGIH)

Yes

TLV (ACGIH)

0.001 ppm, inhalable fraction and vapor

STEL (ACGIH)

0.005 ppm, inhalable fraction and vapor

PEL (OSHA)

Ceiling(OSHA) = 0.02 ppm

IDLH (NIOSH)

2.5 ppm

Excerpts from Documentation for IDLHs

Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for toluene2,4diisocyanate is 2.5 ppm based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Duncan et al. 1962]. Since in sensitized individuals, even concentrations below the OSHA PEL are capable of triggering the allergic response, the revised IDLH has not been based on data obtained from the exposures of individuals or animals sensitized to TDI.

Vapor Pressure

0.008 mm Hg

Odor Threshold Low

0.05 ppm

Odor Threshold High

2.4 ppm

Lethal Concentration

LC50 (rat) = 14 ppm/4 hr

Explanatory Notes

Odor threshold from CHEMINFO; Flash point = 127 deg C; [ICSC] Odor threshold = 50 ppb with about 1/2 of volunteers detecting and identifying the material at 400 ppb; [ACGIH]

Half Life

Whole body: a few hours; [TDR, p. 1156]

Reference Link

ATSDR Medical Management -Toluene diisocyanate

Flammability (NFPA)

1: Must be preheated

Adverse Effects
Skin Sensitizer

Yes

Lacrimator

Yes

Asthma

Yes

Toxic Pneumonitis

Yes

Fibrogenic

Yes

Dermatotoxin

Skin Burns

IARC Carcinogen

Possible Carcinogen

NTP Carcinogen

Anticipated Human Carcinogen

ACGIH Carcinogen

Confirmed Animal

Links to Other NLM Databases
Health Studies

Human Health Effects from Hazardous Substances Data Bank:

Toxicity Information

Search TOXNET

Chemical Information

Search ChemIDplus

Biomedical References

Search PubMed

Related Information in HazMap
Diseases

Occupational diseases associated with exposure to this agent:

Processes

Industrial Processes with risk of exposure: